aCenter for Care Delivery and Outcomes Research (CCDOR), Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System
bDepartment of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School
cDivision of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota
dDivision of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota
Submitted June 13, 2022; accepted January 30, 2023
R.F.M.’s work was supported by the US National Library of Medicine (R01LM013049).
The authors declare no financial arrangements that may represent possible conflicts of interest. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States Government. This manuscript has not previously been published and is not under consideration for publication by another journal. Portions of the included analyses were presented as part of Elizabeth Goldsmith’s epidemiology PhD dissertation defense in December 2021. The written dissertation will be released by ProQuest in December 2023 or later.
Death certificate data are publicly available from the National Center for Health Statistics. Physician-elicited sensitivity values and code for replication are available in Supplemental Data Content.
Supplemental digital content is available through direct URL citations in the HTML and PDF versions of this article (www.epidem.com).
Correspondence: Elizabeth S. Goldsmith, MD, PhD, Center for Care Delivery and Outcomes Research (CCDOR), Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Building 9, Mail code 152, One Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417. E-mail: [email protected].