From the aUniversity of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
bBotswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership
cBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
dHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
eBrigham and Women’s Hospital
fBoston University School of Public Health
Submitted July 11, 2022; accepted February 2, 2023
This study was funded by National Institutes of Health NIH/NICHD K01 HD100222, NIH/NICHD R01 HD080471, NIH/NICHD K23 HD088230, NIH/NIAID K24AI131924.
Data and code are available upon reasonable request and approval from the necessary Institutional Review Boards in the United States and Botswana.
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
Supplemental digital content is available through direct URL citations in the HTML and PDF versions of this article (www.epidem.com).
Correspondence: Ellen C. Caniglia, ScD, Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine. E-mail: [email protected]