Diabetes may increase risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)–related precancer and cancer. We estimated incidence of penile and anal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (hgPeIN, hgAIN) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in men with diabetes compared with the entire Danish male population without diabetes.
In this registry-based cohort study, we included all men born 1916–2001 and residing in Denmark (n = 2,528,756). From nationwide registries, we retrieved individual-level information on diabetes, educational level, and diagnoses of hgPeIN, hgAIN, penile SCC, and anal SCC. We used Poisson regression models to estimate incidence of hgPeIN, hgAIN, penile SCC, and anal SCC as a function of diabetes status, attained age, calendar period, and education. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of each outcome in men with diabetes compared with nondiabetic men, both for diabetes overall and separately for type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Men with diabetes had increased incidence rate of penile SCC compared with nondiabetic men (IRR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). We saw similar trends for anal SCC, hgPeIN, and hgAIN. The combined incidence rate of penile and anal SCC was increased in men with T2D (IRR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3, 1.8), but not with T1D (IRR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.20, 1.4) compared with men without diabetes.
The incidence of penile and anal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and SCC in men with diabetes was increased compared with men without diabetes. For penile and anal SCCs, this was primarily due to an increased risk in men with T2D.