This poster complements the paper in this area (A description of the SPIRT study for Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney: Simpson et al) and details all the results referred in summary in the paper on the short-term health effects of air pollution on cardiovascular admissions in four Australian cities-Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney. The study used a protocol similar to that used in Europe (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach-APHEA) to examine the associations between health outcomes, such as daily mortality and daily hospital admissions counts, and air pollutants. This poster details all the results for the period 1996–1999 of a meta-analysis for the four cities for the acute health impacts of the pollutants-fine particles, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. The meta-analyses often show statistically significant differences between the cities indicating the results can be quite different in different cities. Fine particles (as measured by nephelometery) and nitrogen dioxide both have a significant impact on cardiac admissions (14–65 years, greater than 65 years) and IHD admissions (all ages, > 65 years), while ozone has a significant impact on cardiac admissions (14–65 years, greater than 65 years). The sensitivity of the results to different statistical methods used in the meta-analyses have been carried out using a combination of three approaches: generalised additive models (GAM) using the S Plus statistical package and loess smoothing, generalised additive models using the S Plus package and natural splines, and penalised splines using the R statistical package.
(1) Faculty of Science, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia
(2) Longitudinal Studies Unit, School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Victoria, Australia
(3) EPA, Victoria, Australia
(4) Department of Environmental Protection
(5) Southern Cross Institute of Health Research, NSW Health
(6) Environmental Health Unit, Queensland Health