Contrary to our initial report, the analyses that we published in this paper were performed based on uncorrected pyrethroid metabolite concentrations. We re-ran all analyses using specific gravity-corrected concentrations. Results were largely consistent with those obtained using uncorrected values (Tables E1-E13, http://links.lww.com/EE/A92). When results differed, correcting for specific gravity generally strengthened associations. This primarily occurred for the inverse associations observed between cis-DBCA, cis-DCCA and 3-PBA with arm circumference and weight-for-height z-scores (Table E2, http://links.lww.com/EE/A92). Similarly, when we included additional child covariates (i.e. frequency of diarrhea in the first and second year of life, any persistent fevers lasting 4 days or more between birth and age 1, number of persistent fevers between age 1 and 2, and child food diversity score) in sensitivity analyses, inverse associations between cis-DBCA and arm circumference, weight-for-age z-scores, and weight, as well as between cis-DCCA and arm circumference, were more strongly negative when using corrected values relative to uncorrected values. In addition, while evidence for effect modification by maternal HIV status remained uncertain based on p-values for interaction terms, stratum-specific associations became more consistent with a pattern of stronger inverse associations among HIV-exposed children when we used specific gravity-corrected values. The issue described above does not affect the DDT and DDE analysis as these chemicals are measured in serum and do not require specific gravity adjustment.
Overall, our conclusions that maternal peripartum urinary pyrethroid metabolite concentrations were associated with thinner children at age 3.5 years in the VHEMBE birth cohort remain. As in the original paper, stronger associations were found among boys, children whose mother had sufficient energy intake during pregnancy, and who came from nonpoor families.
Huang JY, Eskenazi B, Bornman R, Rauch S, Chevrier. Maternal peripartum urinary pyrethroid metabolites are associated with thinner children at 3.5 years in the VHEMBE birth cohort (Limpopo, South Africa). Environmental Epidemiology. 2018; 2:e026