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Erratum

Spatial variations in the estimated production of reactive oxygen species in the epithelial lung lining fluid by PM2.5 iron and copper: Erratum

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Environmental Epidemiology: April 2019 - Volume 3 - Issue 2 - p e044
doi: 10.1097/EE9.0000000000000044
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In a recent article published in Environmental Epidemiology, we developed models to predict spatial variations in the ability of PM2.5 iron and copper to contribute to oxidative stress in the lungs. After publication, we became aware of an error in our compilation of PM2.5-metals data during the winter months. This error did not change the overall conclusions of our study but did result in an underestimation of PM2.5 metals concentrations (and ROS concentrations) reported for the winter and annual time periods. Corrected winter and annual values for Fe, Cu, and ROS are shown below in Erratum Table 1.

A second consequence of this error was that between-season differences 85 in PM2.5 metals and ROS concentrations were not as large as initially reported. However, Fe (mean summer/winter ratio=1.42, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.55), Cu (mean summer/winter ratio=1.67, 95% CI: 1.53, 1.80), and ROS concentrations (mean summer/winter ratio=1.35, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.49) still tended to be higher during summer compared to winter (Erratum Figure 1). Correlations between metals during winter also changed slightly once we corrected the error (Erratum Figure 2) as did the distribution of winter ROS values (Erratum Figures 3 and 4).

A third consequence of this error was that all annual models 119 now perform better than initially reported. The corrected models are shown below in Erratum Table 2 and Erratum Figure 5.

In summary, these revised results are consistent with our original 129 findings and support the combined use of PM2.5 metals data with a kinetic multi-layer model of surface and bulk chemistry as a novel means of estimating PM2.5 health impacts beyond simple mass concentrations.

F1
Erratum Figure 1.:
Boxplots for the ratio of summer and winter concentrations of PM2.5, Fe, Cu, and ROS for sites with both summer and winter data in Toronto, Canada (n=28). The red line indicates a ratio of 1:1.
F2
Erratum Figure 2.:
Correlations between PM2.5 100 metals during winter.
F3
Erratum Figure 3.:
Estimated concentrations of specific (A) and total (B) 106 ROS generated by PM2.5 during summer and winter in Toronto using the KM-SUB-ELF Model. Vertical lines indicate uncertainty bars.
F4
Erratum Figure 4.:
Relationships between winter and summer Fe 115 and Cu and ROS generation estimated using the KM-SUB-ELF Model. Vertical lines indicate uncertainty bars.
F5
Erratum Figure 5.:
Land use regression surfaces for summer and annual mean Fe (% mass), Cu (% mass), and their estimated combined impact on ROS generation (nmol/L).
T1
Erratum Table 1.:
Descriptive statistics for PM2.5 (μg/m3), Fe (ng/m3), Cu (ng/m3), and the estimated impact of Fe and Cu on ROS (nmol/L) in Toronto, Canada
T2
Erratum Table 2.:
Land use regression models for annual mean Fe, Cu, and ROS in Toronto, Canada

Reference

Weichenthal S, Shekarrizfard M, Kulka R, Lakey PSJ, Al-Rijleh K, Anowar S, Shiraiwa M, Hatzopoulou M. Spatial variations in the estimated production of reactive oxygen species in the epithelial lung lining fluid by PM2.5 iron and copper.Environmental Epidemiology20182e020
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