Programmed death-1 (PD-1) plays an important role in balancing antiviral immunity. Recently, PD-1 has been shown to induce immune exhaustion of T cells in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Immune exhaustion and apoptosis are responsible for viral persistence. Little information is available regarding the correlation between PD-1 and antiapoptotic proteins, such as bcl-2.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between PD-1 and bcl-2 in liver tissue of patients with CHC infection and histological characteristics of disease progression.
This study was conducted on 91 CHC patients and 20 healthy control participants. Immunohistochemistry was performed on liver tissue sections using antibodies against PD-1 and bcl-2. Immunohistochemical results were correlated with demographic, laboratory, and histopathological findings.
Age and sex did not reveal significant association with either PD-1 or bcl-2. Transaminases, platelets, and prothrombin time showed significant association with PD-1 and bcl-2. PD-1, and bcl-2 demonstrated significant correlation with necroinflammatory activity (P<0.000 and <0.000, respectively) and fibrosis (P=0.001 and <0.000, respectively). Neither PD-1 nor bcl-2 has shown significant correlation with steatosis. There was a strong significant negative correlation between PD-1 and bcl-2 (r=0.723, P≤0.000).
Intrahepatic PD-1 is conversely inter-related to bcl-2 with a pivotal role in disease severity and progression.
Departments of aPathology
bEpidemiology and Preventive Medicine
cHepatology and Gastroenterology, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Shebeen El-Kom, Egypt
Correspondence to Mervat M. Sultan, MD, Department of Pathology, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Yassin Abdel Gaffar Street, 32511 Shebeen El-Kom, Egypt Tel: +20 482 223 216; fax: +20 482 234 586; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received September 5, 2017
Accepted October 5, 2017