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The effects of experimental aflatoxicosis on the pancreas of adult male albino rats and the role of ginger supplementation: a histological and biochemical study

Abd El-Haleem, Manal Reda; Mohamed, Dalia A.

The Egyptian Journal of Histology: September 2011 - Volume 34 - Issue 3 - p 423–435
doi: 10.1097/EHX.0000398847.67845.55
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Introduction Aflatoxin contamination of foods is a worldwide problem, especially in developing countries. Ginger has antioxidant properties.

Aim of the study To study the histological and biochemical changes in the pancreas of rats with experimental aflatoxicosis, and to evaluate the role of ginger supplementation.

Materials and methods Forty-five adult male albino rats were equally divided into three groups. Group I that served as the control group. Group II that received 250 μg/kg body weight/day of aflatoxin B1 dissolved in olive oil using a gastric tube for 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Group III that received both aflatoxin as in group II and 400 mg/kg body weight/day of ginger orally for 5 days/week for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, all rats were anesthetized, and their pancreases were extirpated and divided into two parts to be processed for light and electron microscopic examinations. Morphometrical analysis for area percentage of collagen fibers and biochemical analysis for glucose, insulin, and serum amylase were performed and statistically analyzed.

Results Examination of group II revealed thick interlobular septa that contained congested blood vessels, cellular infiltration, mast, and fat cells. Pancreatic acinar cells showed decreased secretory granules, vacuolization, and dilated fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum. Few acinar cells showed rarified areas of cytoplasm. Some acinar cells had small condensed heterochromatic nuclei. Most of the islets of Langerhans were formed of cells separated by dilated congested capillaries. Most of the nuclei of β cells were euchromatic, whereas some were small heterochromatic. The cytoplasm of β cells had a variety of secretory granules. Most of them had an electron-dense core and an electron-lucent halo, whereas others had homogenous moderate density. Some granules coalesced. A few cells had cytoplasmic areas depleted of granules. Pancreatic ducts were dilated. Examination of group III revealed that pancreatic lobules were separated by thin interlobular septa. Acini had numerous apical acidophilic secretory granules, a few vacuoles, and basal euchromatic nuclei. Beta cells of the islets of Langerhans had euchromatic nuclei and numerous secretory granules with an electron-dense core and a wide electron-lucent halo. Biochemical analysis of glucose and serum amylase showed a highly significant increase, whereas that of insulin showed a highly significant decrease, in group II in comparison with group I. The glucose and serum amylase levels were significantly decreased, whereas the insulin level was significantly increased in group III compared with group II.

Conclusion Aflatoxin had a deleterious effect on the histological structure of the rats' pancreas, and ginger minimized these effects.

Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

Correspondence to Manal Reda Abd El-Haleem, Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt Tel: 0126422694; fax: 002/0552310294; e-mail: manal.reda2010@gmail.com

Received March 7, 2011

Accepted April 9, 2011

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Introduction

The pancreas is an important organ that enables the digestion of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. It produces several enzymes and hormones. Therefore, any changes in the function of this organ may directly affect the life and performance of organisms [1].

Aflatoxins are known as significant mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and other Aspergillus species. There are four natural aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, and aflatoxin G2. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent of these toxins [2]. Mycotoxins are naturally occurring secondary toxic fungal metabolites that contaminate various agricultural products during preharvest or postharvest, storage, and food processing, as well as foods obtained from animals such as milk, meat, and eggs. Exposure to air and dust containing toxins could lead to human infection [3]. Mycotoxin contamination is a worldwide problem. Up to 25% of the world's food crops and food obtained from animals are significantly contaminated. No region of the world escapes this problem. However, it is more obvious in developing countries, where 4.5 billion people are chronically exposed to largely uncontrolled amounts of aflatoxin [3]. The consumption of aflatoxins can cause serious health problems such as growth retardation and immune suppression [4]. Moreover, aflatoxins have been classified by the International Agency of Research on Cancer as a group I human carcinogen [5]. Aflatoxicosis is also associated with biochemical and pathological changes in different organs such as the liver [6], epididymis [7], testis [8], kidney, and heart [9]. The mechanism of action of aflatoxins occurs through the generation of intracellular free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide. These oxides are generated during the metabolic processing of aflatoxin B1 by cytochrome P-450 in the liver to highly reactive aflatoxin B1-epoxide, and they bind to DNA and become mutagenic [10,11].

Zingiber officinale Roscoe, known as ginger, is one of the most commonly used spices in the world. Ginger contains active phenolic compounds that have antioxidant [12] and anti-inflammatory properties [13]. There is a worldwide trend to go back to traditional medicinal plants, as previous researchers had proved that natural products of herbal origin, such as ginger, has antiaflatoxigenic activity against the damaging effects of aflatoxin B1 on some organs [9].

The contamination of food with aflatoxins constitutes a significant problem threatening human health; hence, it is important to know more about the hazards of these toxins. The exact effect of aflatoxins on both exocrine and endocrine parts of the pancreas is still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the histological and biochemical changes in the pancreas that are associated with experimental aflatoxicosis and to evaluate the role of ginger supplementation to counteract these changes.

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Materials and methods

Forty-five healthy adult male (12 weeks old) albino rats weighing 180–200 g were used in this study. The rats were obtained from the Laboratory Animals Unit, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt. They were housed in stainless-steel cages and maintained at room temperature at the Laboratory Animals Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt. They were allowed water ad libitum and were fed a standard laboratory diet.

After an acclimatization period of 1 week, the rats were randomly divided into three equal groups: I, II, and III.

Group I (control group) was subdivided into three subgroups:

Subgroup Ia, which included rats that were allowed water ad libitum and were fed a standard diet (negative control).

Subgroup Ib, which included rats that received olive oil orally as a vehicle.

Subgroup Ic, which included rats that received 400 mg/kg body weight/day of ginger orally by means of a gastric tube.

Group II (received aflatoxin B1): aflatoxin was purchased from Sigma Chemical Company (St Louis, Missouri, USA). It is a white to faint yellow odorless powder. It is a light-sensitive mycotoxin, which should be stored at a temperature of 2–8°C in amber glass vials. It should be transferred for weighing with marked caution to prevent dissemination to the surroundings. The rats received 250 μg/kg body weight/day of aflatoxin B1 [14]. Aflatoxin B1 was dissolved in olive oil as a vehicle and given orally by means of a gastric tube 5 days/week for 4 weeks.

Group III (received both aflatoxin B1 and ginger): the rats received aflatoxin as in the previous group, and after 1 h they received 400 mg/kg body weight/day of ginger [15]. It was dissolved in water as a vehicle to facilitate its administration orally by means of a gastric tube 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Ginger was purchased from MEPACO Comp (Egypt).

At the time of sacrifice, all rats were weighed and anesthetized with intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital. Blood samples were taken from the dorsal vein of the rats' tails from all groups. Their pancreases were dissected out and divided into two parts: one was processed for light microscopic examination and the other for electron microscopic examination.

Specimens for light microscopic examination were fixed in 10% formol saline for 24 h and were processed to prepare 5-μm-thick paraffin sections for hematoxylin and eosin to verify the histological details [16] and for Mallory's trichrome stain to demonstrate the collagen fibers [17].

Specimens for electron microscopy were immediately fixed in 2.5% phosphate-buffered glutaraldehyde (pH 7.4). Thereafter, they were postfixed in 1% osmium tetroxide in the same buffer at 4°C, dehydrated, and embedded in epoxy resin [18]. Semithin sections (1 μm thick) were stained with 1% toluidine blue for light microscopic examination [16]. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate [18] and were examined and photographed using a JEOL JEM 1010 electron microscope (Japan) in the Electron Microscope Research Laboratory of Histology and Cell Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University (Egypt) and in the JEOL JEM 1200 EXII Electron Microscope (Japan) Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University (Egypt).

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Morphometrical study

The image analyzer computer system Leica Qwin 500 (England) in the Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt) was used to evaluate the area percentage of the collagen content in the septa between the acini and ducts and around blood vessels using Mallory's trichrome-stained sections. It was measured using the interactive measure menu. The area percentage and standard measuring frame of a standard area equal to 118 476.6 μm2 were chosen from the parameters measuring 10 readings from five sections from each rat from randomly chosen five animals of each group. In each randomly chosen field, the section of the pancreas was enclosed inside the standard measuring frame; then the area of the collagen fibers was masked by blue binary color to be measured. These measurements were obtained using total magnification ×100.

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Biochemical study

The collected blood was divided into two portions. One portion was used to estimate blood glucose level by the glucose oxidase method [19] using Accu-chek Active (Roch Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). The other portion was transferred to a clean non-EDTA-added tube, allowed to clot, and centrifuged for 10 min at 3000 rpm to obtain sera. The sera were stored at −20°C and were used to determine insulin level and amylase level. Insulin level was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (Mercodia, Sweden). A fully automatic biochemical analyzer (Olympus AU5400; Olympus Corp, Tokyo, Japan) was used to determine the plasma amylase level (U/l).

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Statistical analysis

Data for all groups were expressed as mean±standard deviation (X±standard deviation). The data obtained from the image analyzer and the biochemical data were subjected to SPSS program version 15 (“http//www.spss.com”, Chicago, USA). Statistical analysis using the one-way analysis of variance test was carried out. The results were considered statistically significant, highly significant, and nonsignificant when the P values were <0.05, <0.001, and more than 0.05, respectively.

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Results

Morphological evaluation

The light and electron microscopic examinations of subgroups Ia, Ib, and Ic of the control group revealed similar morphological results; hence, we chose the results of subgroup Ia (negative control) to represent the control group.

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Group I (control group)

Light microscopic examination of the pancreas of the control adult male albino rats revealed that pancreatic lobules were separated by thin interlobular septa. They were formed of closely packed acini. The pyramidal acinar cells had apical acidophilic cytoplasm packed with secretory granules and basal oval nuclei. Interlobular ducts were also seen. Islets of Langerhans appeared as pale oval areas comprising groups of cells separated by blood capillaries (Figs 1 and 2). Mallory's trichrome-stained sections of the pancreas revealed little collagen fibers between acini, ducts, and around islets (Fig. 3). Electron microscopic examination of the pancreas of the same group revealed that acinar cells had basal oval euchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Their cytoplasm contained numerous secretory granules of high-electron density, well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) with lamellar profile, and many mitochondria (Fig. 4). Beta cells of the islets of Langerhans had euchromatic rounded nuclei and numerous secretory granules consisting of an electron-dense core surrounded by an electron-lucent halo (Fig. 5).

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 4

Figure 5

Figure 5

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Group II (aflatoxin-received group)

Light microscopic examination of the pancreas from male albino rats that received aflatoxin B1 revealed pancreatic lobules separated by thick interlobular septa, which contained dilated irregular ducts, congested blood vessels, and cellular infiltration (Figs 6 and 7) and fat cells (Fig. 8). Some acinar cells were vacuolated, whereas other acinar cells had a few vacuoles and a few secretory granules and small condensed nuclei. Most of the islets of Langerhans consisted of many cells separated by dilated congested blood capillaries. Few islet cells were vacuolated (Figs 9 and 10). Cellular infiltration and mast cells were also noticed close to the islets and acini (Fig. 10). Mallory's trichrome-stained sections of the pancreas revealed many collagen fibers, especially around ducts and blood vessels (Fig. 11). Electron microscopic examination of the pancreas of the same group revealed that most of the acinar cells had a few electron-dense secretory granules, many electron-lucent vacuoles, and a fragmented RER. A few acinar cells had extremely rarified electron-lucent areas of cytoplasm that were nearly devoid of organelles. Some acinar cells had small nuclei with peripheral heterochromatic nuclei (Fig. 12). A few acinar cells appeared nearly normal in comparison with the control group. They had many secretory granules with an electron-dense core surrounded by a moderate electron-dense zone and well-developed RER (Fig. 13). Acinar cells contained irregular nuclei with peripheral heterochromatin condensation, electron-lucent cytoplasmic vacuoles, mitochondria, and dilated RER. Mononuclear inflammatory cellular infiltration, mast cells, and bundles of collagen fibers were observed between acini (Fig. 14). Most of the β cells had rounded euchromatic nuclei, whereas some cells had small condensed heterochromatic nuclei. The cytoplasm of β cells had a variety of secretory granules. Most of these granules had an electron-dense core and an electron-lucent halo, whereas some of them had homogenous moderate density. Some secretory granules coalesced together. Beta cells had cytoplasmic areas depleted of granules. Mononuclear inflammatory cellular infiltrations were observed close to islets (Fig. 15).

Figure 6

Figure 6

Figure 7

Figure 7

Figure 8

Figure 8

Figure 9

Figure 9

Figure 10

Figure 10

Figure 11

Figure 11

Figure 12

Figure 12

Figure 13

Figure 13

Figure 14

Figure 14

Figure 15

Figure 15

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Group III (received both aflatoxin B1 and ginger)

Light microscopic examination of the pancreas of male albino rats that received both aflatoxin and ginger revealed pancreatic lobules separated by thin interlobular septa. Pancreatic acinar cells had an apical acidophilic cytoplasm filled with many secretory granules and basal oval nuclei. Few acinar cells still had cytoplasmic vacuoles. Islets of Langerhans appeared as pale oval areas formed of many cells separated by blood capillaries. Congested blood vessels were noticed (Figs 16 and 17). Mallory's trichrome-stained sections of the pancreas of the same group revealed a few collagen fibers around the acini and islets and a moderate amount of collagen fibers around the ducts and blood vessels (Fig. 18). Electron microscopic examination of the pancreas of the same group revealed that acinar cells had many electron-dense secretory granules and mitochondria. A few cells still had electron-lucent vacuoles, whereas other cells had dilated perinuclear cisternae. Most of the nuclei of acinar cells were euchromatic with localized condensation of chromatin (Fig. 19). The β cells of the islets of Langerhans had euchromatic nuclei with clumps of heterochromatin and numerous secretory granules with an electron-dense core surrounded by an electron-lucent halo. Collagen fibers were seen around blood vessels (Fig. 20).

Figure 16

Figure 16

Figure 17

Figure 17

Figure 18

Figure 18

Figure 19

Figure 19

Figure 20

Figure 20

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Morphometrical and statistical results

Statistical comparison between subgroups Ia, Ib, and Ic with regard to the area percentage of collagen fibers revealed no significant difference (P>0.05). Therefore, the negative control group was used for comparison with other groups (Table 1 and Histogram 1).

Histogram 1

Histogram 1

Table 1

Table 1

Statistical comparison of the area percentage of collagen fibers between the different studied groups revealed that the area percentage of collagen fibers in the aflatoxin-treated group was significantly increased as compared with that of both control and aflatoxin–ginger-supplemented groups. (Table 2 and Histogram 2).

Histogram 2

Histogram 2

Table 2

Table 2

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Biochemical and statistical results

Statistical comparison between subgroups Ia, Ib, and Ic with regard to blood glucose, insulin level, and serum amylase revealed no significant difference (P>0.05). Therefore, the negative control group was used for comparison with other groups (Table 3 and Histogram 3).

Histogram 3

Histogram 3

Table 3

Table 3

Statistical comparison of glucose level, insulin level, and serum amylase in the different studied groups was carried out using the analysis of variance test. Glucose showed a highly significant increase, and insulin showed a highly significant decrease, in group II in comparison with groups I and III (Table 4 and Histogram 4), whereas the serum amylase level showed a highly significant increase in the aflatoxin-treated group as compared with the control group.

Histogram 4

Histogram 4

Table 4

Table 4

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Discussion

Aflatoxicosis is the poisoning that results from ingestion of aflatoxins, which are the metabolites of mainly A. flavus and A. parasiticus. It is one of the most devastating and widespread noninfectious diseases [3,20]. Two forms of aflatoxicosis have been identified: acute severe intoxication and chronic subsymptomatic exposure [21]. Although a great deal was known about aflatoxins, little was known about the resulting health effects in developing countries [4].

In this study, most of the acinar cells had a few electron-dense secretory granules and many electron-lucent vacuoles. A few acinar cells had secretory granules with an electron-dense core surrounded by a moderate electron-dense zone. A few acinar cells had extremely rarified electron-lucent areas of cytoplasm that were nearly devoid of organelles. Most of the acinar cells had a dilated and fragmented RER. The mechanism of this cellular damage caused by aflatoxin B1 has not been fully elucidated. Some researchers have stated that the mechanism of action of aflatoxins on the cell was mediated through the production of free radicals and the oxidized products of oxidative stress such as ROS [22,23]. These ROS of oxidative stress are capable of alteration and damaging cellular lipid membranes, especially highly unsaturated fatty acids, through lipid peroxidation, leading to inhibition of protein synthesis and fragility of the zymogen granules [24,25]. The degenerative changes of the acini in this study were similar to those previously observed in chronic pancreatitis [25] and were in agreement with the results obtained by previous investigators [26] who attributed the presence of vacuoles in the quail's exocrine pancreas during aflatoxicosis to defective formation of zymogen granules.

In this study, biochemical analysis of serum amylase in the rats that received aflatoxin (group II) revealed a highly significant increase compared with control rats. These results confirm the acinar degenerative changes that were previously detected. The serum amylase enzyme level was observed to decrease within the first few hours after dimethoate intoxication, which might reflect an impairment of its synthesis by pancreatic acinar cells. Twenty-four hours after intoxication, a steady rise in the amylase enzyme level was observed [27].

In this study, some acinar cells had small condensed heterochromatic nuclei or irregular nuclei with peripheral heterochromatin condensation. Aflatoxin had an impact on the antioxidant defense system; therefore, it led to a marked increase in nitric oxide level. The nitric oxide product reacts with superoxides to produce high peroxynitrite anion toxicity. This toxicity could decrease mitochondrial respiration, deplete cellular glutathione, and damage DNA. Finally, proapoptotic effects in the form of small dark nuclei and condensation of the cytoplasm were induced [28,29].

The current research revealed vascular changes in the form of congested blood vessels. Jakhar and Sadana [30] observed varying degrees of congestion produced by aflatoxin B1 in many organs of quails, such as pancreas, skeletal muscles, myocardium, spleen, and lungs.

In this study, examinations of pancreas in the aflatoxin-received group revealed pancreatic lobules separated by thick interlobular septa with many collagen fibers especially around dilated ducts and blood vessels. Bundles of collagen fibers were seen between acini. The exposure to aflatoxin B1 results in an increase in fibrous tissue in the liver [31]. Vitamin A-storing cells known as stellate cells were famous of being present in the liver [32]. Stellate cells have also been observed in both rat and human pancreas and have been found to play a role in the development of pancreatic fibrosis [33]. The inactive pancreatic stellate cells are triangular, lipid-containing cells predominantly located in perivascular regions. When activated, they lose their lipid droplets and take on a fibroblast-like morphologic appearance, become capable of synthesizing collagen types I, II, and fibronectin, and migrate to periacinar areas [34]. This synthesis of collagen by stellate cells is initiated either by oxidative stress [35] or by complex release of multiple cytokines interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and transforming growth factor-α from a chronic cellular infiltration [25,36]. Therefore, it could be suggested that interstitial fibrosis was a key factor in the distortion of the histoarchitecture of both exocrine and endocrine pancreas [37].

In this study, mononuclear cellular infiltration and mast cells were detected between acini and close to islets of Langerhans in the aflatoxin-received group. These observations were in accordance with the results obtained by other researchers [26,38]. Aflatoxin ingestion leads to ROS production, which indirectly regulates chemokine receptor expression and some function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs). It also facilitates the recruitment and localization of polymorphonuclear leukocyte to the site of infection and inflammation [20]. It was recorded that, during pancreatitis, inflammatory cells trigger the activation of signaling pathways regulating gene expression of inflammatory mediators or results in the increased production of cytokines, which leads to the progression of local pancreatic inflammation [39,40]. Dib et al. [41] found that mast cells potentially play a central role in the initiation of the inflammatory response, including increased vascular permeability and leukocyte accumulation. Lopez Font et al. [42] added that mast cell degranulation plays a pivotal role in the activation of leukocytes and in the induction of pancreatitis.

In this study, fat cells were detected in the exocrine pancreas of the aflatoxin-received group. A similar result was frequently observed in the pancreas during aging [37].

In this study, islets of Langerhans of the aflatoxin-received group appeared as pale oval areas. Most of the islets of Langerhans consisted of many cells separated by dilated congested blood capillaries. A few islet cells were vacuolated. Most of the β cells had rounded euchromatic nuclei, whereas some cells had small condensed heterochromatic nuclei. The cytoplasm of the β cells had a variety of secretory granules. Most of these granules had an electron-dense core and an electron-lucent halo, whereas some of them had homogenous moderate density. These granules sometimes coalesced. Beta cells had cytoplasmic areas depleted of granules. The current biochemical analysis for glucose and insulin showed a highly significant increase and decrease, respectively, in group II in comparison with group I. These results were similar to those detected during diabetes, glucose toxicity, and in oxidative stress [43,44]. They stated that β cells are particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress because of their low levels of antioxidant enzyme expression. This could be involved in the progression of pancreatic B-cell dysfunction, in pathological changes in pancreatic islet β cells, and in glucose toxicity [43,44]. The pancreas could not secrete insulin if the target cells lost their responsiveness to insulin; therefore, the blood glucose level increased markedly [45].

In this study, examination of pancreas in group III, which received both aflatoxins and ginger, revealed that the pancreas resumed nearly its normal general architecture. Pancreatic lobules were separated by thin interlobular septa with a few collagen fibers around the acini and islet and a moderate amount of collagen fibers around the ducts and blood vessels. Pancreatic acinar cells had an apical cytoplasm filed with many acidophilic secretory granules and basal oval nuclei. Ultrastructurally, these secretory granules appeared electron dense. A few cells still had electron-lucent vacuoles, whereas other cells had dilated perinuclear cisternae. Most of the nuclei of acinar cells were euchromatic with localized condensation of chromatin. The current biochemical analysis for serum amylase showed a significant decrease in group III compared with group II (aflatoxin–received group). These biochemical results confirmed the absence of degenerative changes in the acinar cells.

Ginger rhizome (Z. officinale R.; family: Zingiberaceae) is used worldwide as a spice. All major active ingredients of Z. officinale Zingerone, Gingerdiol, Zingbrene gingerols, and shagaols have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The antioxidant capacity of ginger may either be due to mitigation or due to prevention of generation of free radicals. Moreover, ginger oil has a dominative protective effect on DNA damage and might act as a scavenger of oxygen radicals. Ginger was considered as a safe herbal medicine with only few and insignificant side effects [46,47].

In this study, examination of pancreases in group III, which received both aflatoxins and ginger, revealed that islets of Langerhans appeared as pale oval areas consisting of numerous cells and blood capillaries. The β cells of the islets of Langerhans had euchromatic nuclei with clumps of heterochromatin, and numerous secretory granules with an electron-dense core surrounded by electron-lucent halo. No inflammatory cells were detected in relation to the islets. This biochemical analysis for glucose and insulin showed a significant decrease and increase, respectively, in group III compared with group II (aflatoxin-received group). This could be explained by the fact that ginger is a strong antioxidant substance and may either mitigate or prevent the generation of free radicals [46]. It was reported that treatment with ginger extract could reduce the blood glucose level and increase insulin level [48]. Supplementation with ginger during, before, and after mycotoxin treatment showed various degrees of protection against their damaging effects [49]. The ability of ginger to ameliorate the damaging effects of aflatoxins could be due to its ability to cause significant inhibition of CYP450-mediated metabolism of mycotoxins in the liver. Hence, it decreased mycotoxin metabolism into reactive metabolites [50]. Ficker et al. [49] mentioned that ginger had a direct potent antifungal activity.

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Conclusion

From the results of this study, we have concluded that aflatoxin B1 has a deleterious effect on the histological structure of the exocrine and endocrine parts of the pancreas and on the biochemical parameters that reflect the function of the pancreas. Ginger minimized these damaging effects. We recommend eating nutritious diets that contain sufficient amounts of ginger as a way to counteract the deleterious effects of the environmental exposure to pancreatic toxins such as aflatoxins. In addition, we recommend further studies on the role of ginger in aflatoxicosis in various organs.

Table

Table

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Keywords:

aflatoxins; ginger; pancreas histology; rat; ultrastructure

© 2011 The Egyptian Journal of Histology