Acrylamide (ACR) has various industrial uses. Carbohydrate-rich food cooked at high temperature is considered a major source of ACR exposure. ACR induces central and peripheral neurotoxicity in humans and animals. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main constituent of black seeds, and vitamin E exhibit different properties such as anti- inflammatory and antioxidant activity.
This study was designed to investigate the histological changes in the cerebellar cortex of guinea pigs after ACR treatment and study any possible protective role of TQ or vitamin E when given concomitantly with ACR.
Sixty adult guinea pigs were randomly divided into six equal groups: the control group, which was given saline; the vitamin E-treated group (200 mg/kg/day orally); the TQ-treated group (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal); the ACR-treated group (50 mg/ kg/day, intraperitoneal); and two protective groups, one treated with vitamin E along with ACR and the other treated with TQ along with ACR. The protective groups received vitamin E or TQ daily 1 h before administration of ACR. At the end of the studied period, the animals were sacrificed and the right cerebellar hemispheres were used for histological and immunohistochemical studies.
ACR administration induced significant reduction in the number of Purkinje cells and prominent perineuronal spaces in the molecular layer around basket and stellate cells. Immunohistochemically, there was a highly significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells, highly significant increase in the number of astrocytes, and highly significant increase in the number of microglia in guinea pigs treated with ACR compared with the control groups. Concomitant administration of TQ or vitamin E with ACR displayed an observable protection against these changes.
The results proved that the neurotoxicity induced by ACR can be alleviated by combined treatment with vitamin E or TQ.
Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
Correspondence to Hala El-Haroun, MD, PhD., Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt Tel: +00201006601467; fax: +002035827472 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received February 1, 2016
Accepted May 3, 2016