Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a recurrent bowel disease. Several medications are used to treat patients with active UC. However, these are associated with side effects that add to the disease-related complications.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of pentoxifylline, nanocurcumin, and mesenchymal stem cells on experimentally induced UC in rats.
Sixty-five adult male rats were divided into six groups: group I was the control group; group II (UC) consisted of rats that received a single intrarectal injection of 2 ml of 4% acetic acid; group ΙIΙ consisted of rats that received a daily oral dose of pentoxifylline starting 3 days after induction of colitis, for 2 weeks; group ΙV consisted of rats that received a daily oral dose of nanocurcumin starting 3 days after induction of colitis, for 2 weeks; group V comprised rats that received a single injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells through the tail vein 3 days after induction of colitis; and group VI consisted of rats that received a single intrarectal injection of 2 ml of 4% acetic acid and were left without treatment for 2 weeks. Colonic samples were processed and examined using histological and immunohistochemical techniques.
Group ΙIΙ showed improvement in the histopathological picture of colitis. Group IV showed a near-normal histological picture, except for a few areas of surface simple columnar cells that showed discontinuity and a few distorted crypts. Group V showed a histological picture that was nearly similar to that of the control group. Group VI showed a picture that was nearly similar to that of the UC group. There was a significant increase in alcian blue-positive reaction and a significant decrease in the amount of collagen fiber deposition and in tumor necrosis factor α expression (P<0.05) in groups III, IV, and V compared with group II, but these parameters were nonsignificant in the recovery group.
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and nanocurcumin are more effective than pentoxifylline in the treatment against UC in rats. Nanocurcumin is cheaper and hence more cost-effective.
Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt
Correspondence to Nahla El-Eraky El-Azab, MD., Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt Tel.: +20 102 763 6357; fax: +013-3227518; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received October 19, 2015
Accepted February 21, 2016