Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Local and Regional Anaesthesia

The effects of music, white noise and operating room noise on perioperative anxiety in patients under spinal anesthesia


Sener, E. B.; Koylu, N.; Ustun, F. E.; Kocamanoglu, S.; Ozkan, F.

Author Information
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA): June 12th, 2010 - Volume 27 - Issue 47 - p 133
  • Free

Background and Goal of Study: Non-pharmacological methods such as music and white noise may decrease sedative requirements and anxiety in patients undergoing surgical procedure under regional anesthesia. In this study, we aimed to compare the effect of music, white noise and operating room noises on anxiety in patients who already administered fixed dose of midazolam (i.v) infusion under spinal anesthesia.

Materials and Methods: 80 patients who were 18–60 yr old, and ASA I-II, undergoing general surgical, urological and orthopedical procedures under spinal anesthesia were randomly assigned to operating room noise (Group O), white noise (Group W) or intraoperative music (Group M). Spinal anesthesia was performed with hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% 10–15 mg. After spinal anesthesia, midazolam (25 μg/kg, iv) bolus and infusion (0.5 μg/kg/min) was administered to all patients during intraoperative period. The hemodynamic and respiratory parameters and OAA/S (Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale), STAI-TA/SA tests (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-trait/state) were measured at preoperative, intraoperative and recovery period. Patient satisfaction was also recorded. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Comparison were considered significant if P< 0.05.

Results and Discussion: Demographic data, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, OAA/S values were not significantly different at any time among the groups (P>0.05). Preoperative STAI-TA values were not significantly different among the three groups(P>0.05). At 5 min before surgery, the STAI-SA value was significantly less in Group M than the other groups' values (P<0,05). At the recovery period, the STAI-SA values were significantly less in Group M as compared with the other groups (P<0,05). Patient satisfaction was best in Group M. In the operating room, uncomfortable noise may contribute to anxiety. Music and white noise decreased anxiety in our study. We showed that the white noise decreased the anxiety, but this reduction is less than as compared with music.

Patient satisfaction

Conclusion(s): In conclusion, we suggest that patient-selected music is decreases perioperative anxiety and contributes the patient satisfaction during perioperative period in addition to the pharmacological methods, because it's simple, non-invasive and cheap method.

© 2010 European Society of Anaesthesiology