Ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery, the most frequently performed surgical procedure in children, is a strong predictor for peri-operative respiratory complications. However, there is no clear information about peri-operative respiratory severe critical events (SCEs) associated with anaesthesia management of ENT children in Europe.
To characterise the epidemiology and incidence of respiratory SCEs during and following ENT surgery in Europe and to identify the risk factors for their occurrence.
A secondary analysis of the Anaesthesia PRactice In Children Observational Trial, a prospective observational multicentre cohort trial.
The study included 261 centres across 33 European countries and took place over a consecutive 2-week recruitment period between April 2014 and January 2015.
We extracted data from 5592 ENT surgical procedures that were performed on 5572 children aged 6.0 (3.6) years (mean (SD)) from the surgical database and compared these with data from 15 952 non-ENT surgical children aged 6.7 (4.8) years.
The primary outcome was the incidence of respiratory SCEs (laryngospasm, bronchospasm and new onset of postoperative stridor). Secondary outcomes were the differences in epidemiology between ENT children and non-ENT surgical children and the risk factors for the occurrence of respiratory SCEs.
The incidence (95% confidence interval) of any respiratory SCE (laryngospasm, bronchospasm and postoperative stridor) was 3.93% (3.46 to 4.48) and was significantly higher than that observed in non-ENT surgical children [2.61% (2.37 to 2.87)], with a relative risk of 1.51 (1.28 to 1.77), P less than 0.0001. Younger age (14% decrease in critical events by increasing year, P < 0.0001), history of snoring, recent upper respiratory tract infection and recent wheezing increased the risk of suffering a SCE by over two-fold (P < 0.0001). There was also some evidence for a positive association with age below 4.6 years and lower surgical volume thresholds (<20 cases/2 weeks).
The results of this study provide additional evidence for strong associations between risk factors and respiratory SCEs in children having ENT surgery. These observations may facilitate the implementation of good clinical practice recommendations for ENT patients in Europe.
ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01878760.
From the Bolyai Institute, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary (KV), Département d’Anesthésie-Réanimation, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Est, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France (NS), Department of Anaesthesia, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK (MT), Département d’Anesthésie-Réanimation pédiatrique, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, CHRU de Lille, Lille, France (FV) and Department of Anaesthesia, Pharmacology and Intensive Care, University Hospitals of Geneva and University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland (WH)
Correspondence to Walid Habre, MD, PhD, Anaesthesiological Investigations Unit, University Hospitals of Geneva, 6, Rue Willy Donzé, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland Tel: +41 22 37 27 504; fax: +41 22 37 25 485; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Published online 10 January 2019
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