ReviewPrevention of Oxygen Desaturation in Morbidly Obese Patients During Electroconvulsive Therapy A Narrative ReviewKoyama, Yukihide MD, PhD∗; Tsuzaki, Koichi MD, PhD∗; Suzuki, Takeshi MD, PhD†; Ozaki, Makoto MD, PhD‡; Saito, Shigeru MD, PhD§Author Information From the ∗Department of Anesthesia, Nippon Koukan Hospital, Kawasaki †Department of Anesthesiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara ‡Department of Anesthesiology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo §Department of Anesthesiology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan. Received for publication October 6, 2019; accepted December 3, 2019. Reprints: Yukihide Koyama, MD, PhD, Department of Anesthesia, Nippon Koukan Hospital, 1-2-1 Koukan-dori, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, 210-0852, Kanagawa Prefecture, Kawasaki, Japan (e-mail: [email protected]). Conflicts of interest and sources of funding: none declared. The Journal of ECT: September 2020 - Volume 36 - Issue 3 - p 161-167 doi: 10.1097/YCT.0000000000000664 Buy Metrics Abstract In general, preoxygenation is performed using a face mask with oxygen in a supine position, and oxygenation is maintained with manual mask ventilation during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, hypoxic episodes during ECT are not uncommon with this conventional method, especially in morbidly obese patients. The most important property of ventilatory mechanics in patients with obesity is reduced functional residual capacity (FRC). Thus, increasing FRC and oxygen reserves is an important step to improve oxygenation and prevent oxygen desaturation in these individuals. Head-up position, use of apneic oxygenation, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, and high-flow nasal cannula help increase FRC and oxygen reserves, resulting in improved oxygenation and prolonged safe apnea period. Furthermore, significantly higher incidence of difficult mask ventilation is common in morbidly obese individuals. Supraglottic airway devices establish effective ventilation in patients with difficult airways. Thus, the use of supraglottic airway devices is strongly recommended in these patients. Conversely, because muscle fasciculation induced by depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents markedly increases oxygen consumption, especially in individuals with obesity, the use of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents may contribute to better oxygenation in morbidly obese patients during ECT. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.