1Department of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California
2Institute of Health Policy, Management & Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
3Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto
4Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment Collaborative, Toronto, Canada
5Department of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
6Section of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
7Evidence, Development and Standards, Health Quality Ontario
8Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
9Department of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Canada.
Received April 9, 2022; accepted August 17, 2022; published online ahead of print October 28, 2022.
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and text of this article on the journal’s Web site (www.ear-hearing.com).
The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. The work was supported by funds from a Harry Barberian Scholarship Award from the University of Toronto. The funding organization had no role design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the article; and decision to submit the article for publication.
P.R.D. designed the study, collected and analyzed data, and wrote the article; J.S. collected data and contributed to writing; G.T. performed the analysis and provided tables and figures; J.T., J.T.L., and L.F. collected data and contributed to writing; J.M.C contributed to study design and organization. All authors discussed the results and implications and commented on the article at all stages.
Address for correspondence: Peter R. Dixon, Department of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery, University of California San Diego, 200 W Arbor Dr, MC 8895, Room 3S-438, San Diego, CA 92013. E-mail: [email protected]