Dramatic changes in technology have considerably changed the scope of practice of the audiologist. The advent of the digitally programmable hearing aid promises to provide improved speech recognition for hearing-impaired listeners. The current emphasis in hearing aid research is on the enhancement of the technology and instrumentation necessary to measure the acoustic properties of the hearing aid. Less emphasis has been placed on how audiologists should evaluate aided benefit and performance. This article considers future needs in assessment techniques for the aural rehabilitation process.