The novel phenethylamines 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B) fall in the top 10 most used new psychoactive substances (NPSs) among high-risk substance users. Various phenethylamines and NPS
are also highly used in populations with mental disorders, depression, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD
). Moreover, NPS
use is highly prevalent among men and women with risky sexual behavior. Considering these specific populations and their frequent concurrent use of drugs, such as antidepressants, ADHD
medication, and antiretrovirals
, reports on potential interactions between these drugs, and phenethylamines 4-FA and 2C-B, were reviewed.
The authors performed a systematic literature review on 4-FA and 2C-B interactions with antidepressants (citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, duloxetine, bupropion, venlafaxine, phenelzine, moclobemide, and tranylcypromine), ADHD
medications (atomoxetine, dexamphetamine, methylphenidate, and modafinil), and antiretrovirals
Limited literature exists on the pharmacokinetics and drug–drug interactions
of 2C-B and 4-FA. Only one case report indicated a possible interaction between 4-FA and ADHD
medication. Although pharmacokinetic interactions between 4-FA and prescription drugs remain speculative, their pharmacodynamic points toward interactions between 4-FA and ADHD
medication and antidepressants. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of 2C-B also points toward such interactions, between 2C-B and prescription drugs such as antidepressants and ADHD
A drug–drug (phenethylamine
-prescription drug) interaction potential is anticipated, mainly involving monoamine oxidases for 2C-B and 4-FA, with monoamine transporters being more specific to 4-FA.