Fosphenytoin, the diphosphate ester salt of phenytoin, is widely used to treat status epilepticus. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model to describe serum phenytoin concentrations after the intravenous administration of fosphenytoin in adult and elderly epileptic patients.
Patient backgrounds, laboratory tests, and prescribed drugs were retrospectively collected from electronic medical records. Patients who received fosphenytoin were enrolled. The PPK analysis was performed using NONMEM 7.3.0 with the first-order conditional estimation method with interaction. Age, sex, laboratory tests, and coadministered drugs were selected as candidates for covariates. Significance levels for forward inclusion and backward elimination were set at 0.05 and 0.01, respectively. The study protocol was approved by the Fukuoka Tokushukai Ethics Committee.
A total of 340 serum phenytoin concentrations from 200 patients treated with fosphenytoin were available. The median age and body weight of the population were 71 years and 53.4 kg, respectively. A linear 1-compartment model with the conversion rate of fosphenytoin to phenytoin clearly described the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin after the intravenous administration of fosphenytoin. Age was detected as a covariate of clearance (CL): CL (L/h) = 1.99 × (body weight/53.4)0.75 × (age/71)−0.308. Goodness-of-fit plots revealed the high-predictive performance of the final PPK model, and systematic deviations were not observed. The final model was validated by a prediction-corrected visual predictive check and bootstrap analysis.
We herein developed a PPK model to describe phenytoin concentrations after the intravenous administration of fosphenytoin. Age was identified as a significant covariate for CL.