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An HPLC-PDA Method for the Simultaneous Quantification of the HIV Integrase Inhibitor Raltegravir, the New Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Etravirine, and 11 Other Antiretroviral Agents in the Plasma of HIV-Infected Patients

D'Avolio, Antonio BSc, MSc; Baietto, Lorena BSc; Siccardi, Marco BSc; Sciandra, Mauro; Simiele, Marco; Oddone, Valentina; Bonora, Stefano MD; Perri, Giovanni Di MD, DTM & H, PhD

doi: 10.1097/FTD.0b013e318189596d
Original Article

A new method using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo diode array detection was developed and validated for the quantification of plasma concentrations of the human immunodeficiency syndrome integrase inhibitor raltegravir (RGV), the new nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor etravirine (ETV), and 11 other antiretroviral agents: ritonavir, atazanavir, lopinavir, nevirapine, efavirenz, saquinavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, and its metabolite M-8, amprenavir, and darunavir. A simple solid phase extraction procedure was applied to 500 μL aliquots of plasma, and chromatographic separation of the drugs and internal standard (quinoxaline) was achieved with a gradient (acetonitrile and phosphate buffer) on an C-18 reverse-phase analytical column with a 28-minute analytical run time. Calibration curves were optimized according to expected ranges of drug concentrations in patients, and the coefficient of determination (r2) was higher than 0.998 for all analytes. Mean intraday and interday precisions (percent relative SD) for all compounds were 3.67% and 6.39%, respectively, and mean accuracy (percent deviation from nominal concentration) was −1.17%. Extraction recovery ranged within 75% and 83% for all drugs analyzed. The solid phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo diode array method described allow a specific, sensitive, and reliable simultaneous determination of RGV, ETV, and 11 antiretroviral agents in plasma by a single assay. Good extraction efficiency and low limit of quantification make this a suitable method for use in clinical trials and for therapeutic drug monitoring of RGV, protease inhibitors, and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, including ETV.

From the Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Torino, Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, Turin, Italy.

Received for publication June 30, 2008; accepted August 6, 2008.

Correspondence: Antonio D'Avolio, BSc, MSc, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Torino, Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, Corso Svizzera 164-10149 Turin, Italy (e-mail:

© 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.