Review ArticleNephrotoxicity Associated With Exposure to Plant Toxins, With Particular Reference to AfricaSteenkamp, Vanessa*; Stewart, Michael J†Author Information From the *Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; and †Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Received for publication May 24, 2004; accepted February 22, 2005. Reprints: Dr. V. Steenkamp, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, PO Box 2034, Pretoria, South Africa 0001 (e-mail: [email protected]). Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: June 2005 - Volume 27 - Issue 3 - p 270-277 doi: 10.1097/01.ftd.0000162229.86303.67 Buy Metrics Abstract Acute renal failure is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in the hospitalized population worldwide. In Africa, apart from hemodynamic causes and infections, herbal remedies contribute to both morbidity and mortality, although these causes often go unrecognized. This paper reviews reports of herbal remedies that have been shown to result in nephrotoxicity. The indications for use of the remedies, signs and symptoms in poisoned patients, and the methods used to detect toxic compounds in plant specimens or in biological fluids are covered. © 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.