ReviewsAchieving Target Goals Most Precisely Using Nonparametric Compartmental Models and “Multiple Model” Design of Dosage RegimensJelliffe, Roger; Bayard, David; Milman, Mark; Van Guilder, Michael; Schumitzky, AlanAuthor Information Laboratory of Applied Pharmacokinetics, USC School of Medicine Received February 2, 1999; accepted December 27, 1999. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Roger W. Jelliffe, Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSC 134-B, Los Angeles, CA 90033. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: June 2000 - Volume 22 - Issue 3 - p 346-353 Buy Abstract Multiple model (MM) design and stochastic control of dosage regimens permit essentially full use of all the information contained in either a Bayesian prior nonparametric EM (NPEM) population pharmacokinetic model or in an MM Bayesian posterior updated parameter set, to achieve and maintain selected therapeutic goals with optimal precision (least predicted weighted squared error). The regimens are visibly more precise in the achievement of desired target goals than are current methods using mean or median population parameter values. Bayesian feedback has now also been incorporated into the MM software. An evaluation of MM dosage design using an NPEM population model versus dosage design based on conventional mean population parameter values is presented, using a population model of vancomycin. Further feedback control was also evaluated, incorporating realistic simulated uncertainties in the clinical environment such as those in the preparation and administration of doses. © 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.