Facial aging is multifactorial, including changes in all the anatomical layers of the face including bone, fat, connective tissues and skin.
An evaluation of the multifactorial causation of facial aging pointed to the need for a multifactorial approach to restoration and rejuvenation of the aging human face.
The varied aetiologies of the expressions of facial aging require more interventions than a unipolar approach. Combinations of neuromodulators, three and two-dimensional fillers and energy based devices were discussed. Surgical interventions were also discussed but were not addressed in this paper.
A multimodal approach to lower facial rejuvenation and restoration is discussed as the most effective and appropriate method to achieve noninvasive aesthetic treatment success.
Departments of *Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, and
†Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Jean Carruthers, MD, FRCSC, Jean Carruthers Cosmetic Surgery Inc., 943 West Broadway, Suite 820, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V5Z4E1, or e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
J. Carruthers and A. Carruthers are consultants and researchers for Allergan, Alphaeon, Kythera, Merz Pharmaceuticals, and Revance.