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A Multimodal Approach to Rejuvenation of the Lower Face

Carruthers, Jean MD, FRCSC; Carruthers, Alastair MD, FRCPC

doi: 10.1097/DSS.0000000000000749
Original Article

BACKGROUND Facial aging is multifactorial, including changes in all the anatomical layers of the face including bone, fat, connective tissues and skin.

METHODS An evaluation of the multifactorial causation of facial aging pointed to the need for a multifactorial approach to restoration and rejuvenation of the aging human face.

RESULTS The varied aetiologies of the expressions of facial aging require more interventions than a unipolar approach. Combinations of neuromodulators, three and two-dimensional fillers and energy based devices were discussed. Surgical interventions were also discussed but were not addressed in this paper.

CONCLUSIONS A multimodal approach to lower facial rejuvenation and restoration is discussed as the most effective and appropriate method to achieve noninvasive aesthetic treatment success.

Departments of *Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, and

Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Jean Carruthers, MD, FRCSC, Jean Carruthers Cosmetic Surgery Inc., 943 West Broadway, Suite 820, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V5Z4E1, or e-mail:

J. Carruthers and A. Carruthers are consultants and researchers for Allergan, Alphaeon, Kythera, Merz Pharmaceuticals, and Revance.

© 2016 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
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