Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease associated with considerable burden and mental health symptoms. We sought to determine the association of maternal depression in the postpartum period and maternal and paternal depression in later childhood with AD prevalence and persistence in US children. Data were analyzed from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a prospective cohort study of 4898 children born in 20 metropolitan US cities. History of postpartum depression was associated with childhood AD overall (multivariable logistic regression; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.64), and particularly at ages 5 years (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04–1.73) and 9 years (aOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10–1.70). Postpartum depression was associated with more persistent AD (present at 2 years: aOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.12–2.22; 3 years: aOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.15–2.60). Maternal depression in the past year was associated with significantly higher odds of AD at age 5 years (aOR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.20–1.99), 9 years (aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.10–1.71), and 15 years (aOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.13–1.80). Maternal depression was associated with higher odds of AD during 1 year (aOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.16–1.94), 2 years (aOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.16–2.19), or all 3 years of interviews (aOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.06–2.45). In conclusion, maternal depression in the postpartum period and beyond is associated with AD throughout childhood and adolescence.