Limonene is a fragrance widely used in cosmetics and household products. Until recently, contact allergy to limonene was considered rare because positive patch tests to it were infrequently observed. In recent years, however, it has been demonstrated that exposure of limonene to oxygen (air) results in the formation of a number of oxidation products, of which the hydroperoxides have a far stronger sensitizing potency than the pure compound. By routine testing of patients suspected of contact dermatitis with hydroperoxides of limonene, high frequencies of positive reactions were found, indicating that these chemicals are important fragrance allergens. It should be realized, however, that a number of “positive” reactions may well be false-positive, irritant responses.