Toxicology endeavors to predict the potential of materials to cause adverse health (and environmental) effects and to assess the risk(s) associated with exposure. For skin sensitizers, the local lymph node assay was the first method to be fully and independently validated, as well as the first to offer an objective end point with a quantitative measure of sensitizing potency (in addition to hazard identification). Fifteen years later, it serves as the primary standard for the development of in vitro/in chemico/in silico alternatives.
From *DABMEB Consultancy Ltd, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom; †Procter & Gamble, Mason, Cincinnati, OH; and ‡Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
Address reprint requests to David A. Basketter, DSc, FRCPath, DABMEB Consultancy Ltd, 2 Normans Road, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1PR, United Kingdom. E-mail: email@example.com.
The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to declare.