The incidence of colorectal cancer among reproductive-aged women is increasing. Concerns regarding future fertility are secondary only to concerns regarding survival and may significantly impact quality of life among reproductive-aged female cancer survivors. Fertility preservation counseling reduces long-term regret and dissatisfaction among cancer survivors. Health care providers counseling patients with colorectal cancer must understand the impact of cancer treatment on future reproductive potential.
This review aims to examine the effects that colorectal cancer treatments have on female fertility and summarize existing and emerging options for fertility preservation.
EMBASE, National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE)/PubMed, Cochrane Review Library were the data sources for this review.
A systematic literature review was performed using exploded MeSH terms to identify articles examining the effect of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, as well as fertility preservation options for colorectal cancer on female fertility. Relevant studies were included.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
The primary outcome was the effect of colorectal cancer treatment on fertility.
There are limited data regarding the impact of colorectal surgery on fertility. The gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy on reproductive capacity depend on age at the time of chemotherapy administration, cumulative chemotherapy, radiation dose, type of agent, and baseline fertility status. Chemotherapy-induced risks for colorectal cancers are considered low to moderate, whereas pelvic radiation with a dose of 45 to 50 Gray induces premature menopause in greater than 90% of patients. Ovarian transposition may reduce but not eliminate the damaging effect of radiation on the ovaries. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation are considered standard of care for women desiring fertility preservation, with oocyte cryopreservation no longer being considered experimental. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation remains experimental but may be an option for select patients. The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists remains controversial and has not been definitively shown to preserve fertility.
The limitations of this review are the lack of randomized controlled trials and high-quality studies, as well as the small sample sizes and the use of surrogate fertility markers.
Reproductive-aged women with colorectal cancer benefit from fertility preservation counseling before the initiation of cancer treatment.