Data on tissue distribution of human papillomavirus types in anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions are limited and the impact on treatment outcomes poorly understood.
We aimed to investigate potential predictors of treatment failure after electrocautery ablation, including human papillomavirus type(s) isolated from index lesions.
This was a retrospective cohort study.
The study was conducted at a tertiary academic referral center in New York City.
Seventy-nine HIV-infected patients with a diagnosis of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions between January 2009 and December 2012 were included, and genomic DNA was extracted from biopsy tissue.
The prevalence of human papillomavirus types in index lesions and surveillance biopsies after electrocautery ablation were analyzed to evaluate treatment response.
Of 79 anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 71 (90%) tested positive for ≥1 human papillomavirus type; 8 (10%) had no human papillomavirus detected. The most common type was 16 (39%), followed by 33 (15%). Human papillomavirus type 18 was seen in 3%. Sixty-one patients (77%) underwent electrocautery ablation and had subsequent surveillance biopsies. Surveillance biopsies yielded benign findings or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in 31 (51%) of 61 and recurrent high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in 30 (49%) of 61 patients (mean follow-up: 35 mo). Ablation response did not differ significantly based on baseline demographics, smoking history, history of anogenital warts, mean CD4+ T-cell count, antiretroviral-therapy use, and HIV viral load (<50 copies/mL). The recurrence of high-grade lesions was not significantly associated with high-risk human papillomavirus types detected in index lesions.
Human papillomavirus genotyping in surveillance biopsies was not performed.
Anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-infected patients contain a wide range of human papillomavirus types, and individual lesions commonly harbor multiple types concomitantly. Recurrence of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions after electrocautery ablation occurs frequently and is not affected by high-risk human papillomavirus types. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A833.
1 Internal Medicine, Mount Sinai Beth Israel, New York, New York
2 Division of General Internal Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
3 Division of Gynecologic Pathology, Department of Pathology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
4 Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts
5 Division of Infectious Disease, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
Funding/Support: This work was supported by funding from the National Cancer Institute (K07CA180782).
Financial Disclosure: None reported.
Poster presentation at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Boston, MA, February 22 to 25, 2016.
Correspondence: Michael Gaisa, M.D., Ph.D., Division of Infectious Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1090, New York, NY 10029. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org