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Selected Techniques of Anal Fistula Surgery from Antiquity Through the Early 20th Century Illustrated

Ortega, Adrian E. M.D.1; Gesek, Alan M.F.A.2; Linnebur, Megan M.D.1; Cologne, Kyle G. M.D.1

Diseases of the Colon & Rectum: June 2017 - Volume 60 - Issue 6 - p 636–646
doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000000833
Historical Perspectives

This article highlights surgical approaches to the surgical treatment of anal fistula from antiquity to the early 20th century. Primary translations and other authoritative commentaries on the subject are included. Selected surgical techniques have been reconstructed and illustrated in contemporary interpreted images.

1 Division of Colorectal Surgery, Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

2 Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York

Financial Disclosures: None reported.

Correspondence: Adrian E. Ortega, M.D., LAC+USC Medical Center. Clinic Tower, Rm 61231-A, 1200 N. State St, Los Angeles CA 90033. E-mail:

© 2017 The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons