Venous thromboembolism after abdominal surgery occurs in 2% to 3% of patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. However, no evidence-based guidelines currently exist to guide postdischarge prophylactic anticoagulation.
We sought to determine the use of postoperative postdischarge venous thromboembolism chemical prophylaxis, 90-day venous thromboembolism rates, and factors associated with 90-day thromboembolic events in IBD patients following abdominal surgery.
This was a retrospective evaluation of an administrative database.
Data were obtained from Optum Labs Data Warehouse, a large administrative database containing claims on privately insured and Medicare Advantage enrollees.
Seven thousand seventy-eight patients undergoing surgery for Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis were included in the study.
Primary outcomes were rates of postdischarge venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and 90-day rates of postdischarge thromboembolic events. In addition, patient clinical characteristics were identified to determine predictors of postdischarge venous thromboembolism.
Postdischarge chemical prophylaxis was given to only 0.6% of patients in the study. Two hundred thirty-five patients (3.3%) developed a postdischarge thromboembolic complication. Postdischarge thromboembolism was more common in patients with ulcerative colitis than with Crohn’s disease (5.8% vs 2.3%; p < 0.001). Increased rates of venous thromboembolism were seen in patients undergoing colectomy or proctectomy with simultaneous stoma creation compared with colectomy or proctectomy alone (5.8% vs 2.1%; p < 0.001). The strongest predictors of thromboembolic complications were stoma creation (adjusted OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.34–2.84), J-pouch reconstruction (adjusted OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.65–4.29), preoperative prednisone use (adjusted OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.19–2.08), and longer length of stay (adjusted OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.41–2.52).
This study is limited by its retrospective design.
The use of postdischarge venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in this patient sample was infrequent. Development of evidence-based guidelines, particularly for high-risk patients, should be considered to improve the outcomes of IBD patients undergoing abdominal surgery.
1 Department of Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts
2 Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
3 Optum Visiting Fellow, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts
Funding/Support: Internal funding, Department of Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Podium presentation at the meeting of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons, Los Angeles, CA, April 30 to May 4, 2016.
Correspondence: Matthew T. Brady, M.D., 88 East Newton St, C515, Boston, MA, 02118. E-mail: email@example.com