High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, the putative anal carcinoma precursor, is more common in HIV-infected persons. The ideal treatment for these lesions has not been established.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of infrared coagulation treatment for high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
This is a prospective cohort study. Patients with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia either received infrared coagulation treatment or voluntarily did not receive treatment and were reevaluated at a subsequent time point.
This investigation was performed at a Ryan White-funded clinic located in the United States.
HIV-infected men and women with biopsy-confirmed high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia were included.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
The primary outcome measured was the histology collected by high-resolution anoscopy-directed biopsy.
The study included 124 patients. Of 42 patients who either delayed treatment or were not treated, 37 (88%; 95% CI = 74%–96%) still had high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia on reevaluation and 2 (5%; 95%CI = 1%–16%) had squamous-cell carcinoma. Of 98 patients who received infrared coagulation treatment, 73 (74%; 95% CI = 65%–83%) patients had no evidence of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia on their first posttreatment evaluation, and none had progressed to squamous-cell carcinoma (p < 0.0001 in comparison with untreated). Upon completing all initial and, if necessary, follow-up treatment, 85 (87%; 95% CI = 78%–93%) patients treated by infrared coagulation had no evidence of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia and none had progressed to squamous-cell carcinoma.
The study population may not be representative of the general population, the study environment was uncontrolled, and patients were not randomly assigned to treatment.
Infrared coagulation is an effective treatment for high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.