The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of patients with leiomyosarcoma of the rectum or anus treated with local excision and brachytherapy.
Eight patients with leiomyosarcoma of the rectum (7 patients) or anus (1 patient) were treated with a transanal excision followed by a temporary iridium-192 interstitial implant to 4,500 cGy. Median tumor size was 4.2 (range, 1.5-5) cm. Margins were positive in six patients, negative in one patient, and close in one patient.
With a median follow-up of 53 months, median survival time was 53 months and the three-year actuarial survival rate was 71 percent. The cumulative incidence of failure as a component of failure for local was 25 percent (2/8), for abdominal was 0 percent (0/8), and for distant was 25 percent (2/8). Four patients eligible for functional analysis all had excellent sphincter function (1-2 bowel movements per day, no soilage).
In selected patients the use of conservative surgery followed by brachytherapy is a reasonable alternative to an abdominoperineal resection. However, more experience and longer follow-up are needed before this approach can be recommended routinely.