PURPOSE: PURPOSE:This retrospective study assesses the results of total colectomy and ileorectostomy for inflammatory bowel disease.
METHODS: METHODS:Between January 1974 and December 1990, 90 patients underwent total colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis (n=48) or Crohn's colitis (n=42) at the Mayo Clinic. Patients' records were reviewed retrospectively. Long-term results were assessed by chart reviews and postal questionnaires. Conversion to a permanent ileostomy, with or without proctectomy, was considered a failure of the procedure. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survivorship free of failure. The log-rank test was used to compare survivorship curves. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated at selected time points. Pvalues<0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.
RESULTS: RESULTS:The main indication for surgery was refractory chronic disease. There were no immediate postoperative deaths. The anastomotic leakage rate was 4.4 percent, and small-bowel obstruction occurred in 15.6 percent. At the time of follow-up (mean, 6.5±4.8 years), 46 patients (58.9 percent) had recurrence or exacerbation of the disease. This was the most common indication for subsequent proctectomy/permanent ileostomy in the follow-up period. There were 8 failures in 48 patients with ulcerative colitis (16.7 percent) and 11 failures in 42 patients with Crohn's disease (26.2 percent), although this difference was not statistically significant. Cumulative probability of having a functioning ileorectal anastomosis at five years was 84.2 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 71-95.9 percent) for ulcerative colitis and 73.8 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 58.6-88.6 percent) for Crohn's disease. In the latter group, females showed a significantly lower cumulative probability of having a functioning ileorectal anastomosis (females, 634 percent; males, 92.3 percent;P=0.04). Crohn's patients 36 years of age or younger also showed a lower probability of success (patients ≤36 years, 57 percent; patients >36 years, 93.8 percent;P=0.03). In the group with chronic ulcerative colitis, younger patients also seemed to require additional surgery more frequently; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Previous duration of symptoms, with mild or moderate disease in a distensible rectum, had no effect on results in either disease group. Functional results were acceptable in 63.6 and 87.5 percent of patients with Crohn's and ulcerative colitis, respectively. Eighty-four percent of ulcerative colitis patients and 91 percent of Crohn's disease patients reported an improvement in their quality of life, and overall, more than 90 percent considered their health status to be better than before surgery. One patient with ulcerative colitis developed carcinoma of the rectal stump 11.5 years after the colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis (cumulative probability of remaining free of cancer, 85.7 percent at 12 years; 95 percent confidence interval, 57.7-100 percent).
CONCLUSIONS: CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate that, in selected patients with a relatively spared rectum and without severe perineal disease, total colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis still remains a viable option to total proctocolectomy with extensive Crohn's colitis. In addition, ileorectal anastomosis, as a sphincter-saving procedure, continues to have a place in the surgical treatment of chronic ulcerative colitis for high-risk or older patients who are not good candidates for ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, when the latter procedure cannot be done because of technical reasons and in the presence of advanced carcinoma concomitant with colitis, when life expectancy is limited.
© The ASCRS 1997