Ann Quinlan-Colwell, PhD, RN-BC, is a clinical nurse specialist in pain management at New Hanover Regional Medical Center in Wilmington, N.C.
The author has disclosed that she has no financial relationships related to this article.
Reprinted with permission from The Nurse Practitioner. 38(12):17-21, December 2013. Previously adapted with permission from: Quinlan-Colwell A. Making an ethical plan for treating patients in pain. Nursing. 2013;43(10):64-68.