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Surgical Treatment Strategies for the Previously Operated Lumbar Spine

Villavicencio, Alan T. MD; Nelson, Ewell L. MD; Burneikiene, Sigita MD; Arends, Gregory MD

doi: 10.1097/01.CSS.0000410300.58096.38
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Dr. Villavicencio is Director, Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery Program, and Dr. Nelson is Attending Physician, Boulder Neurosurgical Associates, 1155 Alpine Ave, Ste 320, Boulder, CO 80304; E-mail: atv@bnasurg.com; Dr. Burneikiene is Clinical Research Director, Justin Parker Neurological Institute, Boulder, Colorado; and Dr. Arends is Attending Physician, Colorado Center for Spine Medicine, Boulder, Colorado.

Dr. Villavicencio has disclosed that he is/was the recipient of grant/research funding from Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Orthofix, Zimmer Spine, and Medtronic Navigation and is a stock/shareholder of Lanx. Dr. Nelson has disclosed that he is/was the recipient of grant and consultant funding from Medtronic Navigation and is a stock/shareholder of Lanx; Dr. Arends has disclosed that he is/was consultant and speaker for Pfizer. Dr. Burneikiene, staff, and staff spouses/life partners (if any) in a position to control the content of this CME activity have disclosed that they have no financial relationships with, or financial interests in, any commercial organizations related to this CME activity.

The authors have disclosed that some artificial discs, fixation devices, dynamic stabilization devices, and the use of recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 for the indications discussed in this article have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Lippincott CME Institute, Inc., has identified and resolved all conflicts of interest related to this CME activity.

Lippincott Continuing Medical Education Institute is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Lippincott Continuing Medical Education Institute designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. To earn CME credit, you must read the CME article and complete the quiz and evaluation assessment survey on the enclosed form, answering at least 70% of the quiz questions correctly. This activity expires on December 31, 2012.

© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
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