The role of total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of displaced intracapsular fractures of the proximal femur in active patients is controversial. Some authors have shown that such patients, when treated with a bipolar or unipolar hemiarthroplasty, are at increased risk of having acetabular erosion develop that might require later revision to a total hip replacement. In fact, the results of some authors were not substantially different from those reported for elective total hip arthroplasty and were better than results reported for hemiarthroplasty. However, other authors have strongly recommended avoiding total hip replacement in active elderly patients without preexisting acetabular disease (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Paget's disease). Although the current belief is that there is a place for primary total hip arthroplasty after intracapsular hip fracture, and that this procedure should be reserved for patients with preexisting symptomatic acetabular disease, in a preliminary prospective comparative study of 46 active patients without preexisting acetabular disease, the current author found better results with cemented Charnley's total hip arthroplasty than with cemented Thompson's hemiarthroplasty. Long-term outcome and more detailed indications for total hip replacement as the primary treatment for intracapsular displaced fractures of the proximal femur are topics for additional study.