The Classic Fundamental Aspects of Fracture Treatment.YASUDA IWAOClinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (1976-2007): May 1977 Buy Abstract Iwao Yasuda, M.D., was born in Kyoto, Japan in 1909. He graduated from Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine in 1936 and entered the Department of Anatomy of the same medical school and did research on membrane potentials using glass electrodes. Yasuda entered the Department of Surgery of the same medical school and started research on space medicine and electrical stimulation of square wave to organic substance in 1938. His work was interrupted by World War II from 1941 to 1945. In 1949 he became an Associate Professor of Orthopedic Surgery of the Kyoto Prefectual University of Medicine and was awarded the degree of Ph.D. with a thesis on "Streaming Potentials" in 1950. In 1953, he published articles on "Piezoelectricity of Bone" and "Electrical Callus." In 1957 he wrote "On the Piezoelectric Effect of Bone" with Dr. E. Fukada. Yasuda became Chief of the Department of Orthopedic Surgery at Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital in 1960. In 1973, he was invited to report on "Mechanical and Electrical Callus" at the New York Academy of Sciences, and in 1975 he reported on "Electrical Callus and Callus Formation by Electret" at the 13th meeting of SICOT in Denmark as well as at the 2nd meeting of ICM (International Congress of Materials) in Boston in 1976. Iwao Yasuda is clearly the acknowledged pioneer in the field of fundamental research on electrical currents in bone (Fig. 1). (C) Lippincott-Raven Publishers.