Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) remains challenging because of limited success and higher target vessel failure rates. Detailed safety and efficacy data for CTO-PCI from a multicenter real-world Korean registry are limited.
Since May 2007, the Korean multicenter retrospective CTO registry has enrolled 3271 patients who underwent CTO-PCI at 26 major medical centers. Baseline clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics and 12-month major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rates after PCI were retrospectively collected.
Baseline cardiovascular risk factors included: male sex, 73.8%; prior myocardial infarction (MI), 14.8%; prior PCI, 26.6%; hypertension, 62.3%; diabetes mellitus, 34.8%; dyslipidemia, 33.3%; and current smoker, 30.9%. Pre-PCI myocardial viability testing was performed in 23.6% of patients and pre-PCI cardiac computed tomography (CT) in 17.6%. CTO arterial lesions were distributed as follows: right coronary, 41.0%; left anterior descending, 40.0%; left circumflex, 22.5%; and left main, 0.4%. Unfavorable lesion morphology was detected by angiography in 38.1%. Intravascular ultrasound guidance and the retrograde approach were utilized in 23.6 and 3.1% of CTO-PCI procedures, respectively. More than 75% of patients received drug-eluting stents (sirolimus-eluting, 26.5%; paclitaxel-eluting, 23.8%; zotarolimus-eluting, 23.4%; everolimus-eluting, 11.0%; and others, 4.0%). The overall success rate was 81.6% (2672/3271 patients). Twelve-month event rates were: total mortality, 2.4%; any MI, 0.7%; target lesion revascularization, 4.4%; target vessel revascularization, 6.7%; and total MACE, 9.4%.
Twelve-month success rates, safety profiles, and cumulative clinical outcomes of Korean CTO patients were favorable post-PCI. Long-term follow-up of larger study populations is necessary to validate our findings.