Coronary artery disease (CAD) is often more extensive in older adults and may involve multivessel and left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease. Elderly patients are commonly excluded from clinical trials, and limited real-world data exist on the management of LMCA disease in the very old. We aimed to investigate clinical features and outcomes of very old patients undergoing revascularization due to LMCA disease.
A retrospective single-center analysis of patients at least 80 years (n = 139) who underwent revascularization owing to CAD involving unprotected LMCA stenosis more than 50% was conducted. Subsequent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: myocardial infarction, stroke, and all-cause death) and repeat revascularizations were recorded, and their relation to revascularization procedure was studied.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed in 74 patients and coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) in 65. Most patients (80%) had multivessel disease involving at least 2 additional coronary arteries. PCI was associated with older age, higher rates of baseline disability, previous revascularization, reduced ventricular function, significant aortic stenosis, and presentation with acute coronary syndrome, compared with CABG. Cumulative 3-year MACE rates were higher in patients undergoing PCI versus CABG (P = 0.009). After multivariable adjustment, predictors of MACE included presentation with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.24–4.63; P = 0.010], revascularization by PCI compared with CABG [HR = 2.21 (1.18–4.15); P = 0.013], baseline disability [HR = 2.17 (1.20–3.91); P = 0.010], and distal LMCA disease [HR = 1.87 (1.04–3.38); P = 0.038]. The difference in 3-year MACE between PCI and CABG was not observed in a propensity-score analysis of 90 patients matched 1: 1 for baseline disability, STEMI, and aortic stenosis (P = 0.797).
In very old patients undergoing coronary revascularization owing to LMCA disease, PCI was associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes compared with CABG, influenced by a more severe and comorbid population selected for PCI. Baseline disability, presentation with STEMI, and distal LMCA bifurcation disease were additional independent outcome predictors.
aDepartment of Cardiology, Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center
bFaculty of Medicine, Technion, Israel Institute of Medicine, Haifa, Israel
Received 20 January 2019 Revised 27 January 2019 Accepted 22 March 2019
Correspondence to Barak Zafrir, MD, Department of Cardiology, Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, 7 Michal St., Haifa, IsraelTel/fax: + 972 4825 0801/916; e-mail: email@example.com