Oral treatments for diabetes mellitus (DM) may have a deleterious effect on acute coronary syndromes (ACS) outcomes.
We aimed to examine in-hospital mortality among patients with ACS and DM and the impact of anti-DM treatment modalities.
Methods and results
The Euro Heart Survey ACS prospectively enrolled 10 484 patients across Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Of the 10 214 patients with recorded DM status, 2352 (23.0%) had DM, of whom 562 were on diet alone, 1112 received oral hypoglycaemics, 561 received insulin, and 117 received both. The in-hospital mortality for ST-elevation-ACS was 9.8 and 5.7% for patients with and without DM, respectively, with an adjusted risk (95% confidence interval) of in-hospital mortality of 1.6 (1.2, 2.1). The in-hospital mortality for non-ST-elevation-ACS was 2.8 and 2.0%, accordingly, with an adjusted risk (95% confidence interval) of in-hospital mortality of 1.2 (0.8, 1.9). The in-hospital mortality for undetermined-electrocardiographic-pattern-ACS was 11.5 and 10.9%, accordingly, with an adjusted risk of in-hospital mortality of 1.1 (0.6, 2.0). Among DM patients with ST-elevation-ACS, the adjusted risks of in-hospital mortality were 1.0 for diet therapy, 0.8 (0.4, 1.5) for oral hypoglycaemics, and 1.9 (1.0, 3.8) for insulin; for DM patients and non-ST-elevation-ACS, 1.0 for diet therapy, 2.2 (0.6, 7.8) for oral hypoglycaemics, and 3.5 (1.0, 12.5) for insulin; for DM patients and undetermined-electrocardiographic-pattern-ACS, the adjusted risks of in-hospital mortality were 1.0 for diet therapy, 0.9 (0.2, 4.6) for oral hypoglycaemics, and 2.1 (0.5, 9.5) for insulin.
Acute coronary syndrome patients with DM, especially those with ST-elevation, had increased in-hospital mortality. Among ACS patients with DM, those receiving insulin had worse outcomes. Outcomes were similar for those on hypoglycaemics or on diet alone.