To characterize delayed restoration of coronary blood flow following successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA).
Delayed restoration of coronary blood flow following successful PTCA is common and likely the result of multiple factors. Temporary myocardial ischemia and dipyridamole administration both result in increased coronary blood flow, but by different mechanisms. The relationship between these phenomena and exercise-induced ST-segment depression after PTCA was investigated to determine if any correlation existed.
Forty consecutive patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease underwent treadmill exercise testing before and after PTCA. The percentage change in coronary blood flow before and after 90 s balloon inflation was assessed. After a new steady state had been reached, dipyridamole was infused and changes in coronary blood flow were again determined. The relationship between changes in coronary blood flow and the presence of ST-segment depression during exercise testing after PTCA was determined.
Peak coronary blood flow induced by reactive hyperemia was significantly greater than that in the steady state after balloon inflation (48.5±38.8 compared with 15.1±13.2 ml/min, P<0.0001). Dipyridamole administration also resulted in significant increases in coronary blood flow (15.1±13.2 ml/min compared with 31.0±24.9 ml/min, P<0.0001). ST-segment depression after PTCA was significantly less than before (0.10±0.07 mV compared with 0.19±0.08 mV, P<0.001). Further, reactive hyperemia, but not dipyridamole-induced hyperemia, correlated with attenuation of exercise-induced ST-segment depression after PTCA (r=0.62, P<0.0001).
Reactive hyperemia following temporary coronary occlusion recreates local conditions associated with delayed resolution of myocardial ischemia following successful PTCA. Further, this phenomenon appears to be distinct from changes in coronary blood flow induced by dipyridamole.