The aim of this study was to characterize the wide phenotypic spectrum of Peters anomaly and to suggest a management algorithm based on disease phenotype.
The charts of all children diagnosed with Peters anomaly between January 2000 and December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Anterior segment color photographs, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and ultrasound biomicroscopy images were used to phenotype disease severity and to guide management. Disease severity was categorized to Peters anomaly type I and II according to lens involvement. Peters anomaly type I and II were further categorized from mild to severe disease according to the size and location of corneal opacity. Associated systemic findings were also documented.
Eighty eyes of 54 patients with Peters anomaly were identified, of which 28 (51.9%) had unilateral disease. Peters anomaly type I was present in 40 patients (57 eyes, 71.2%) and Peters anomaly type II in 14 patients (23 eyes, 28.8%). Nine eyes (11.3%) had phenotypic features that required observation only, 24 eyes (30%) were amenable to pupillary dilation, 43 eyes (53.8%) with large, dense central opacity required penetrating keratoplasty, and 4 eyes (5.0%) had no intervention because of very poor prognostic features. Associated systemic abnormalities occurred frequently in Peters anomaly (n = 20, 37.0%), with congenital heart defect being the most common morbidity (n = 10, 18.5%).
Peters anomaly presents with a variable phenotype ranging from minimal peripheral corneal opacity to extensive iris and lens adhesions with dense central corneal opacity detrimental to vision. Management can be standardized and guided by an algorithm based on phenotypic severity. Systemic abnormalities should be ruled out, regardless of the severity of Peters anomaly.