To evaluate the prevalence of dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction in patients with scleroderma.
A total of 32 patients with scleroderma (study group) and 31 healthy subjects (control group) were enrolled. Besides routine ophthalmologic evaluation, Schirmer 1 test, tear break-up time, tear osmolarity, ocular surface staining with fluorescein (Oxford score), and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, meibomian gland dysfunction evaluation (foamy tears, telangiectasia of the eyelid, eyelid contour abnormalities, and meibomian plugs), and meibography were performed.
Sixty-four eyes of 32 patients with scleroderma and 62 eyes of 31 healthy individuals were evaluated. Mean ages of the study group was 48.34 ± 9.73 years (21–62 years) and of the control group was 45.84 ± 4.42 years (38–54 years) (P = 0.067). Mean duration of systemic sclerosis or scleroderma in study group was 9.78 ± 7.40 years (1–30 years). Mean tear break-up time was shorter in study group than that in the control group (P < 0.0005). No statistical differences were detected for osmolarity, OSDI score, and Schirmer 1 values between groups (P = 0.051, P = 0.053, and P = 0.358, respectively). The prevalence of grade 1 and higher Oxford score was higher in the study group (P < 0.0005). Upper meiboscores of grade 1 and higher were found to be more common in the study group than those in the control group (P = 0.036). The presence of foamy tears and telangiectasia of the eyelids were significantly higher in the study group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002, respectively). OSDI score was the only significantly correlated data with disease duration (Spearman ρ coefficient = 0.396, P = 0.001).
Evaporative type dry eye is more common in patients with scleroderma than the healthy population.