To investigate the presence of pre-Descemet corneal dystrophy (PDCD) in association with X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) in an 11-year-old boy using multimodal imaging and genetic analysis.
Corneal opacities were examined and imaged with slit-lamp biomicroscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, noncontact specular microscopy, and in vivo confocal microscopy. Cytogenomic array analysis was performed using genomic DNA isolated from the patient.
Corneal opacities characteristic of PDCD located in the posterior corneal stroma just anterior to Descemet membrane were identified by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. A pre-Descemet hyper-reflective line, consistent with these opacities, was seen with anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Scheimpflug tomography revealed a bimodal peak light scattering. In vivo confocal microscopy findings were unremarkable. Copy number analysis identified a 4389 kbp hemizygous deletion on the X chromosome (chr. X: 6,540,898–8,167,604), resulting in the deletion of 4 genes, including the known locus of XLI, the STS gene.
This report demonstrates that PDCD-associated XLI may present in children and that the diagnosis may be confirmed through multimodal imaging in conjunction with genetic analysis.