Keratitis–ichthyosis–deafness (KID) syndrome is characterized by a congenital triad of keratitis, ichthyosis, and deafness, and is most commonly associated with mutations in the gap junction protein beta 2 gene (GJB2) on chromosome 13q11-q12.
Multimodal anterior segment imaging and genetic testing were used to supplement clinical examination findings in the diagnosis and management of a 12-year-old boy with suspected KID syndrome.
The patient presented with hearing loss, ichthyosis of the face and extremities, and corneal scarring and keratinization. The corneal limbal stem cell population was found to be normal on in vivo confocal microscopy, whereas the basal epithelium of the cornea demonstrated scarring and areas of cellular loss. Screening of GJB2 revealed a presumed pathogenic heterozygous missense mutation, c.148G>A, confirming the diagnosis of KID syndrome.
Multimodal imaging including in vivo confocal microscopy suggests that dysfunctional corneal basal epithelium maturation might contribute to the pathophysiology of keratopathy in KID syndrome.