To compare the protective effects of cyclosporine A
emulsion (Restasis: 0.05% cyclosporine A
) (CsAE) and cyclosporine A cationic emulsion
(Ikervis: 0.1% cyclosporine A
) (CsACE) on cellular inflammation
, proliferation, and survival
in an in vitro dry eye model.
The concentration of CsA in CsAE and CsACE was verified using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry system. Human corneal epithelial cells were subjected to desiccation stress. Human corneal epithelial cells were incubated with or without 3 groups of cyclosporine A
medium (CsAE 1:50, CsACE 1:50, and CsACE 1:100). p-NF-κB p65, p-IκBα, Bax, Bcl-xL, p-Erk1/2, and p-Akt levels were determined using Western blots, and TNF-α levels were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The CsA concentration of CsACE 1:100 was nearly the same as that of CsAE 1:50. Compared with CsAE 1:50 (0.78 ± 0.19 fold), the p-NF-κB p65 level was further reduced in CsACE 1:50 (0.38 ± 1.20 fold) and 1:100 (0.29 ± 0.11 fold) as well as p-IκBα. Levels of TNF-α were also lower in CsACE 1:50 and 1:100 than in CsAE 1:50. Induction of the apoptotic protein Bax was significantly decreased in CsACE 1:50 and 1:100 compared with CsAE 1:50, whereas that of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL was increased in CsACE 1:50 and 1:100. p-ERK1/2 and p-Akt levels were higher in CsACE 1:50 and 1:100 than in CsAE 1:50.
CsACE had more potent anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects than CsAE in a transwell desiccation stress model. CsACE also enhanced proliferation and survival
factors under desiccation stress compared with CsAE in this in vitro dry eye model.