To evaluate the microbiological profile and outcome in cases with infective keratitis in Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS).
Eighty-three eyes of 68 patients with SJS presenting with microbial keratitis were recruited and managed with standard antimicrobial therapy.
Microbial keratitis developed in 34% of patients with SJS (83 eyes, 68 patients) over a period of 5 years. Four eyes (4.8%) had a history of concurrent topical steroid use at the onset of keratitis. Mean baseline best-corrected visual acuity was 1.8 ± 0.9 logMAR units. The site of corneal ulceration was central in 52 eyes (62.6%), paracentral in 17 eyes (20.5%), and peripheral in 14 eyes (16.8%). The mean ulcer area was 3.9 ± 2.7 mm2. Approximately 15 of 24 (62.5%) culture-positive eyes had bacterial infection, most of which (80%) were caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Polymicrobial infection was noted in 7 of 24 eyes (29.1%). Although 57 of 83 (68.6%) eyes healed with medical therapy, 26 of 83 (31.3%) eyes had corneal perforation and were managed with cyanoacrylate glue application (30.7%) or therapeutic keratoplasty (69.3%). Systemic infection as an inciting factor of SJS and an early presentation for keratitis were the major risk factors associated with corneal perforation. Large mean ulcer size, paracentral ulcers, and punctal involvement were associated with a good visual outcome.
Infective keratitis in SJS is common, and unlike routine cases, surgical intervention is often required. However, the antibiotic sensitivity pattern suggests that resistance is not that high.