ReviewXenotransplantation-The Future of Corneal Transplantation?Hara, Hidetaka; Cooper, David K CAuthor Information From the Department of Surgery, Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Received for publication January 29, 2010; revision received June 28, 2010; accepted July 9, 2010. Supported in part by the Eye Bank Association of America. Work on xeno-Tx in the Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute of the University of Pittsburgh is supported in part by National Institutes of Health grants U01 AI068642 and R21 A1074844 and by Sponsored Research Agreements between the University of Pittsburgh and Revivicor, Inc, Blacksburg, VA. Reprints: Hidetaka Hara, Department of Surgery, Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, Starzl Biomedical Sciences Tower, Room E1558, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (e-mail: [email protected]). Cornea: April 2011 - Volume 30 - Issue 4 - p 371-378 doi: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e3181f237ef Buy Metrics Abstract Although corneal transplantation (Tx) is readily available in the United States and certain other regions of the developed world, the need for human donor corneas worldwide far exceeds supply. There is currently renewed interest in the possibility of using corneas from other species, especially pigs, for Tx into humans (xeno-Tx). The biomechanical properties of human and pig corneas are similar. Studies in animal models of corneal xeno-Tx have documented both humoral and cellular immune responses that play roles in xenograft rejection. The results obtained from the Tx of corneas from wild-type (ie, genetically unmodified) pigs into nonhuman primates have been surprisingly good and encouraging. Recent progress in the genetic manipulation of pigs has led to the prospect that the remaining immunological barriers will be overcome. There is every reason for optimism that corneal xeno-Tx will become a clinical reality within the next few years. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.