Child Neurology

February 2018, Volume 24, Issue 1
BROWSE ISSUES

Child Neurology

February 2018, Vol.24, No.1

Guest Editor:

James W. M. Owens, MD, PhD; Shafali Jeste, MD

Editor-in-Chief:

STEVEN L. LEWIS, MD, FAAN

ISSN: 1080-2371

Online ISSN: 1538-6899

REVIEW ARTICLES
Genetic Diagnostics for Neurologists
Silveira-Moriyama, Laura; Paciorkowski, Alex R.
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 18-36
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000556
Testing for Inborn Errors of Metabolism
Kwon, Jennifer M.
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 37-56
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000563
Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy and Other Neonatal Encephalopathies
Glass, Hannah C.
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 57-71
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000557
Nervous System Malformations
Gaitanis, John; Tarui, Tomo
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 72-95
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000561
Neurocutaneous Disorders
Rosser, Tena
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 96-129
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000562
Leukodystrophies
Waldman, Amy T.
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 130-149
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000560
Evaluation and Acute Management of Ischemic Stroke in Infants and Children
Amlie-Lefond, Catherine
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 150-170
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000559
Epileptic Encephalopathies
Hussain, Shaun A.
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 171-185
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000558
Epilepsy Syndromes in Childhood
Pearl, Phillip L.
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 186-209
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000568
Pediatric Sleep Disorders
Maski, Kiran; Owens, Judith
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 210-227
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000566
Evaluation of the Child With Developmental Impairments
van Karnebeek, Clara D. M.
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 228-247
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000564
Evaluation and Management of the Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Baumer, Nicole; Spence, Sarah J.
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 248-275
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000578
Transition From Pediatric to Adult Neurologic Care
Tilton, Ann H.; de Gusmao, Claudio Melo
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 276-287
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000570
Neurologic Complications in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
Wainwright, Mark S.
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 288-299
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000565
Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury and Concussion
Choe, Meeryo; Barlow, Karen M.
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology - p 300-311
doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000569
Editor's Preface
Articles
Key Points
Abbreviations
Appendix
Issue Overview
STEVEN L. LEWIS, MD, FAAN

Editor-in-Chief:

STEVEN L. LEWIS, MD, FAAN

The Rebirth of Continuum, or: Out With the Gold, in With the New

CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology February 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 1, Child Neurology -p 14-16 doi: 10.1212/01.CON.0000530704.36026.37

I would like to welcome all our readers to the newly redesigned Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology. The new appearance of the issue you’re reading is the result of the long-term vision and several years of preparation, dedication, and hard work by many, including our editorial staff at the AAN (in particular Andrea Weiss, Executive Editor, and Amanda Doering, Managing Editor), our editorial board, and our publishing staff at Wolters Kluwer, all under the skillful guidance of the design professionals at Pentagram, who did remarkable work in reenvisioning the “packaging” of the material in Continuum to make the important information we cover in print and online as readable and visually interesting as possible, all for the sake of optimizing educational effectiveness.

The new appearance of the issue you’re reading is the result of the long-termvision and several years of preparation, dedication, and hard work by many.

In addition to the fresh and more colorful new design of the print issue, the most obvious change you have already noted is the remarkable illustration by British artist Peter Grundy on the cover, a striking departure from our most recent previous front-page table of contents. For more information about the artist and the philosophy behind the creation of these new colorful thematic cover illustrations for each Continuum issue, please refer to the “Beyond the Page” section inside the front cover. The new “Beyond the Page” section in each issue will provide information about related content to complement and enhance the material in the print issue, including multimedia content, Continuum Audio interviews, and references to articles in other recent Continuum issues of relevance to the current issue’s theme.

To increase readability, other enhancements to the print issue include the single-column design for the review articles (rather than the previous two-column design) and the lack of right-sided justification; the “jagged” edge on the right side of the text, it turns out, is helpful to improve ease of readability as we read from one line to the next. Another feature that may be helpful to some readers is the semicircular tabs along the side of the issue, assisting readers in knowing where one article ends and the next one begins.

For those who miss the gold color that has so long been a prominent aspect of Continuum’s identity (although originally a teal publication in its early years), the spine remains gold (albeit a different and, we hope you’ll agree, more modern kind of gold), and most issue covers will include a hint of gold within the illustration. And, for those who prefer a table of contents (rather than an illustration) on their issue cover, readers can simply flip the issue over to see the full list of review articles and page numbers; this ability to have essentially two functional covers is unique to Continuum given our freedom from advertising content.

In addition to the print redesign, we are pleased to inform our subscribers that a subscription to Continuum now includes full access to Continuum Audio; this integration of Continuum and Continuum Audio means that all subscribers now have the ability to both read content prepared by the authors and listen to interviews with them, allowing several ways to learn from the experts. Finally, along with the many changes and enhancements to the print version of Continuum, you will see a refreshed website when you visit ContinuumJournal.com, and in the upcoming months we will be launching an entirely redesigned website with enhanced functionality to allow for better access and readability of Continuum content, especially at the point of care.

But all the wonderful enhancements to the design are secondary to the important information presented in each issue, as exemplified by the carefully created content for Child Neurology (a topic that has not been covered in a dedicated Continuum issue for nearly 18 years) curated and edited by our expert guest editors. For that reason, I am so pleased that Dr Shafali Jeste and Dr James W. M. Owens Jr, renowned child neurologists and neurologic educators, agreed to be guest editors of this issue and brought such remarkable colleagues on board to share their expertise and experience on child neurology topics with us.

Given the particular importance of genetic diagnosis in child neurology, this issue begins with an article on genetic diagnostics for neurologists by Drs Laura Silveira-Moriyama and Alex R. Paciorkowski. This article will serve as a long-needed primer and overview of genetics and genetic diagnosis, reminding some of us of what we once knew but may have forgotten while also informing all of us of the newest tools (and their relevance and pitfalls) available in this “next generation” of genetic diagnostics. Next, Dr Jennifer M. Kwon untangles the complicated topic of inborn errors of metabolism and their presentation, investigation, and management.

Dr Hannah C. Glass then discusses the diagnosis and current approaches to management of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and other causes of neonatal encephalopathy. Drs John Gaitanis and Tomo Tarui then review the many causes of central nervous system malformations, categorized according to when in development they occur and what process is disrupted. Dr Tena Rosser next provides an amply illustrated review of the many neurocutaneous disorders that affect patients throughout their lives. Dr Amy T. Waldman then reviews the diagnosis and management of the leukodystrophies, whose early recognition and diagnosis is important for timely intervention. Dr Catherine Amlie-Lefond discusses the evaluation and acute management of ischemic stroke in infants and children, including arterial ischemic stroke and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

The diagnosis and management of pediatric epilepsy is discussed in the next two articles, starting with the article on the diagnosis and management of the epileptic encephalopathies by Dr Shaun A. Hussain. The following article, by Dr Phillip L. Pearl, reviews the many other epilepsy syndromes in childhood, distinguishing the typical ages of onset, characteristic clinical features, EEG findings, and management of these syndromes. On a related theme, Drs Kiran Maski and Judith Owens next review the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of the many sleep disorders that can present in the pediatric age group.

Dr Clara D. M. van Karnebeek next provides a modern, pragmatic, and clearly delineated stepwise approach to the evaluation of the child with developmental impairments. Drs Nicole Baumer and Sarah J. Spence then review the current diagnostic criteria for and the evaluation and management of the child with autism spectrum disorder. Drs Ann H. Tilton and Claudio Melo de Gusmao provide us with a thoughtful approach to the transition of our patients from pediatric care to adult neurologic care, an issue of importance for both child neurology and adult neurology providers. Dr Mark S. Wainwright then discusses the diagnosis and management of neurologic complications encountered in children in the pediatric intensive care unit. The final review article in the issue, by Drs Meeryo Choe and Karen M. Barlow, tackles the management of pediatric traumatic brain injury and concussion, with particular attention to sports-related concussion. Finally, in the Coding Issues article, Dr Korwyn Williams discusses how the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification affects coding for pediatric diagnoses.

Readers should note that although this is a large issue with many child neurology topics covered, some topics, such as pediatric muscle disease, were purposely omitted because of extensive coverage in other recent Continuum issues. Pediatric topics covered in recent issues are referenced in the “Beyond the Page” section inside the front cover.

We are also pleased to announce an enhancement and evolution of the CME offering in Continuum, including an increase in the maximum number of CME credits available for readers. After reading the issue and taking the Postreading Self-Assessment and CME Test written by Dr James W. M. Owens Jr and Continuum editorial board member Dr Allison Weathers, you may now earn up to 20 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™ toward self-assessment and CME or, for Canadian participants, a maximum of 20 hours toward the Self-Assessment Program (Section 3) of the Maintenance of Certification Program of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

The increase in CME credits available per issue is long overdue and reflects the increasing girth of our Continuum issues (intended to provide the vast content needed to provide modern neurologic care). We know this translates to a significantly longer time commitment to absorb the important material in each issue, which may occur over many settings (in time and place, including at the point of care). Readers will also note that the multiple-choice questions are now organized by article, an enhancement that has been requested by readers for some time.

I would like to give my sincere thanks to Drs Jeste and Owens for agreeing to serve as guest editors of this immense issue in a long-needed topic in our curriculum, providing all of us (child neurologists and adult neurologists alike) with the most up-to-date knowledge about the diagnosis and management of pediatric neurologic disorders. I am most pleased and honored that they are the pioneer guest editors of this issue to help ensure a healthy start to the infancy of the newly redesigned Continuum.

I am most pleased and honored that Drs Owens and Jeste are the pioneer guest editors of this issue to help ensure a healthy start to the infancy of the newly redesigned Continuum.

STEVEN L. LEWIS, MD, FAAN
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

© 2018 American Academy of Neurology.