This article reviews the neurologic complications associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
Neurologic complications of HIV may be caused by direct virally mediated pathology, immune-mediated phenomena in response to viral infection, or opportunistic infections secondary to depletion of lymphocytes. These neurologic disorders may be influenced by the degree of immunosuppression (ie, CD4+ T-cell lymphocyte count) and stage of infection (early versus late), as well as use of antiretroviral therapy, and may manifest as a variety of central and peripheral neurologic syndromes, including the more commonly encountered HIV-associated cognitive disorders and length-dependent sensorimotor polyneuropathy, respectively. Immune dysregulation underlies the majority of these neurologic phenomena, as well as other HIV-associated conditions including immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), CD8 lymphocytosis, and potentially the development of compartmentalized infection within the CSF, also referred to as CSF escape.
This article reviews a spectrum of clinical syndromes and related neuropathologic states associated with HIV infection.