Allen J. Aksamit, Jr, MD, FAAN; Aaron L. Berkowitz, MD, PhD Neuroinfectious Diseases p. 836-854 August 2021, Vol.27, No.4 doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001016
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PURPOSE OF REVIEW This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis, including updates on newer molecular diagnostic techniques for microbiological diagnosis.

RECENT FINDINGS New polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular diagnostic techniques have improved the timeliness of microbiological diagnosis in meningitis, but clinicians must be aware of the limitations of such tests. Next-generation sequencing can now be applied to CSF, allowing for diagnosis of infections not identifiable by conventional means.

SUMMARY Infectious meningitis can be caused by a broad range of organisms. The clinician must be aware of the test characteristics of new molecular techniques for microbiological diagnosis as well as traditional techniques to tailor antimicrobial therapy appropriately in patients with meningitis.

Address correspondence to Dr Allen J. Aksamit, Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, [email protected].

RELATIONSHIP DISCLOSURE: Dr Aksamit reports no disclosure. Dr Berkowitz serves on the editorial board for Continuum and has received publishing royalties from HarperCollins Publishers, McGraw Hill, MedMaster, and Oxford University Press.

UNLABELED USE OF PRODUCTS/INVESTIGATIONAL USE DISCLOSURE: Drs Aksamit and Berkowitz report no disclosures.

© 2021 American Academy of Neurology.