This article reviews the causes of tinnitus, hyperacusis, and otalgia, as well as hearing loss relevant for clinicians in the field of neurology.
Important causes of unilateral and bilateral tinnitus are discussed, including those that are treatable or caused by serious structural or vascular causes. Concepts of hyperacusis and misophonia are covered, along with various types of neurologic disorders that can lead to pain in the ear. Hearing loss is common but not always purely otologic.
Tinnitus and hearing loss are common symptoms that are sometimes related to a primary neurologic disorder. This review, tailored to neurologists who care for patients who may be referred to or encountered in neurology practice, provides information on hearing disorders, how to recognize when a neurologic process may be involved, and when to refer to otolaryngology or other specialists.